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高中英语高考冲刺语法大全含练习题
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高中英语高考冲刺语法大全含练习题第一部分词法第1章主谓一致一.概念:主谓一致是指:1)语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。2)意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。例如:Thereismuchwaterinthethermos.但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:Tenthousandtonsofcoalwereproducedlastyear.二.相关知识点精讲1.并列结构作主语时谓语用复数,例如:Readingandwritingareveryimportant.读写很重要。注意:当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。例如:,Theironandsteelindustryisveryimportanttoourlife.钢铁工业对我们的生活有重要意义。典型例题TheLeaguesecretaryandmonitor___askedtomakeaspeechatthemeeting.A.isB.wasC.areD.were答案B.注:先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A.,C。本题易误选D,因为TheLeaguesecretaryandmonitor好象是两个人,但仔细辨别,monitor前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。2.主谓一致中的靠近原则1)当therebe句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。例如: Thereisapen,aknifeandseveralbooksonthedesk.桌上有一支笔、一把小刀和几本书。 Therearetwentyboy-studentsandtwenty-threegirl-studentsintheclass.班上有二十个男孩,二十三个女孩。2)当either…or…与neither…nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。如果句子是由here,,there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。例如: Eitheryouorsheistogo.不是你去,就是她去。 Hereisapen,afewenvelopsandsomepaperforyou.给你笔、信封和纸。3.谓语动词与前面的主语一致当主语有with,togetherwith,like,except,but,nolessthan,aswellas等词组成的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语部分一致。例如:Theteachertogetherwithsomestudentsisvisitingthefactory.教师和一些学生在参观工厂。HeaswellasIwantstogoboating.他和我想去划船。4.谓语需用单数的情况1)代词each以及由every,some,no,any等构成的复合代词作主语时,或主语中含有each,every时,谓语需用单数。例如:Eachofushasatape-recorder.我们每人都有录音机。Thereissomethingwrongwithmywatch.我的表坏了。2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。例如:TheArabianNightisabookknowntoloversofEnglish.《天方夜谭》是英语爱好者熟悉的一本书。, 3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。例如:Threeweekswasallowedformakingthenecessarypreparations.用三个星期来做准备。Tenyuanisenough.十元够了。5.指代意义决定谓语的单复数1)代词what,which,who,none,some,any,more,most,all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。例如:Allisright. 一切顺利。Allarepresent. 人都到齐了。???2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如family,audience,crew,crowd,class,company,committee等词后,谓语动词用复数形式时强调这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时强调该集体的整体。例如:Hisfamilyisn'tverylarge.他家成员不多。Hisfamilyaremusiclovers. 他家个个都是音乐爱好者。但集合名词people,police,cattle,poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。例如:Arethereanypolicearound?附近有警察吗?3)有些名词,如variety,number,population,proportion,majority,等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。例如:Anumberof+名词复数+复数动词。Thenumberof+名词复数+单数动词。Anumberofbookshavelentout.ThemajorityofthestudentslikeEnglish.6.与后接名词或代词保持一致的情况1)用halfof,mostof,noneof,heapsof,lotsof,plentyof等引起主语时,谓语动词通常与of后面的名词/代词保持一致。例如:Mostofhismoneyisspentonbooks.他大部分的钱化在书上了。Mostofthestudentsaretakinganactivepartinsports.大部分学生积极参与体育运动。2)用aportionof,aseriesof,apileof,apanelof等引起主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。例如:Aseriesofaccidentshasbeenreported.媒体报道了一连串的事故。Apileoflotswassetbesidethehearth.炉边有一堆木柴。3)如manya或morethanone所修饰的短语作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。但由morethan…of作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。例如:,Manyapersonhasreadthenovel. 许多人读过这本书。Morethan60percentofthestudentsarefromthecity.百分之六十多的学生来自这个城市。三.巩固练习()1.Thenumberofpeopleinvited______fifty,butanumberofthem_______absentfordifferentreasons.A.were,wasB.was,wasC.was,wereD.were,were()2.E-mail,aswellastelephones,________animportantpartindailycommunication.A.isplayingB.haveplayedC.areplayingD.play()3.______ofthelandinthatdistrict______coveredwithtreesandgrass.A.Twofifth,isB.Twofifth,areC.Twofifths,isD.Twofifths,are()4.Tenminutes______alongtimeforonewhowaits.A.seemB.seemsC.seemedD.areseemed()5.Ericistheonlyoneoftheboyswho_____,adrivinglicense.A.hasB.haveC.ishavingD.arehaving’()6.JoyandSorrow_____next-doorneighbours.A.isB.areC.wereD.be()7.Inmyopinion,someofthenews_____unbelievable.A.areB.isC.hasbeenD.havebeen()8.When______theUnitedNationsfounded?A.isB.areC.wasD.were()9.Everypossiblemeans_____.A.hastriedB.hasbeentriedC.wastriedD.weretried()10.Whatshesaysanddoes_____nothingtodowithme.A.wasB.wereC.hasD.have()11.There_____adictionaryandseveralbooksonthedesk.A.areB.mustC.havebeenD.is()12.Nobody______seenthefilm.It’sapity.A.butTomandJackhaveB.exceptTomandJackhaveC.butmyfriendshasD.butIhave,()13.Noteacherandnostudent______.A.areadmittedB.isadmittedC.areadmittingD.isadmitting()14.Allbutone______herejustnow.A.isB.wasC.hasbeenD.were()15.Whenandwheretobuildthenewfactory_____yet.A.isnotdecidedB.arenotdecidedC.hasnotdecidedD.havenotdecided()16.Thewriterandsinger______here.A.isB.areC.wereD.do()17.AsIhaveameetingatfour,tenminutes_____allthatIcansparetotalkwithyou.A.areB.wasC.isD.were()18.InthosedaysJohnwithhisclassmates_____keptbusypreparingfortheexam.A.isB.areC.wasD.were()19.——____yourclothes?——No,mine_____hangingoverthere.A.Isit,isB.Arethese,areC.Isit,areD.Arethese,is,()20.TheSmith’sfamily,which____ratheralargeone,____veryfondoftheiroldhouses.A.were,wereB.was,wasC.were,wasD.was,were()21.Whattheteacherandthestudentswanttosay_____thateitherofthecountries____beautiful.A.are,areB.is,isC.are,isD.is,are()22.Heistheonlyoneofthestudentswho_____awinnerofscholarshipforthreeyears.A.isB.areC.havebeenD.hasbeen()23._____ofmybrothersarereporters.Coveringevents,meetings,orsportsmeetings______theirduty.A.Each,areB.Both,isC.Neither,areD.None,is()24.——Whatdoyouthinkofthe______ofthecoat?——It’sratherhigh.Youcanbuyacheaperoneinthatshop.A.valueB.costC.priceD.use,()25.——Arethetwoanswerscorrect?——No,______correct.A.nooneisB.botharenotC.neitherisD.eitherisnot()26.Thewind,togetherwithrainandfog,_____makingsailingdifficult.A.havebeenB.wasC./D/are四.答案1.C2.A3.C4.B5.A6.B7.B8.C9.B10.C11.D12.C13.B14.D15.A16.A17.C18.C19.B20.D21.B22.D23.B24.C25.C26.B第2章动词的时态概念:时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式,表示动作发生的时间和所处的状态.英语中的时态是通过动词形式本身的变化来实现的.英语有16种时态,但中学阶段较常用的有十种:一般现在时,一般过去时,一般将来时,过去将来时,现在进行时,过去进行时,将来进行时,过去完成时,英在完成时和现在完成进行时.二.相关知识点精讲,1.一般现在时的用法1)经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。时间状语:every…,sometimes, at…,onSunday。例如:Ileavehomeforschoolat7everymorning.每天早上我七点离开家。2)客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。例如:Theearthmovesaroundthesun.地球绕太阳转动。ShanghailiesintheeastofChina.上海位于中国东部。3)表示格言或警句。例如:Pridegoesbeforeafall. 骄者必败。注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。例:Columbusprovedthattheearthisround.哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。4)现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。例如:Idon'twantsomuch.我不要那么多。AnnwritesgoodEnglishbutdoesnotspeakwell.安英语写得不错,讲的可不行。比较:NowIputthesugarinthecup.把糖放入杯子。Iamdoingmyhomeworknow.我正在做功课。,第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。2.一般过去时的用法1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。例如:时间状语有:yesterday,lastweek,anhourago,theotherday,in1982等。例如:Wheredidyougojustnow?刚才你上哪儿去了?2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。例如:WhenIwasachild,Ioftenplayedfootballinthestreet.我是个孩子的时候,常在马路上踢足球。WhenevertheBrownswentduringtheirvisit,theyweregivenawarmwelcome.那时,布朗一家无论什么时候去,都受到热烈欢迎。 3)句型:Itistimeforsb.todosth"到……时间了""该……了"。例如:Itistimeforyoutogotobed.你该睡觉了。Itistimethatsb.didsth."时间已迟了""早该……了",例如Itistimeyouwenttobed. 你早该睡觉了。would(had)rathersb.didsth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'。例如:I'dratheryoucametomorrow.还是明天来吧。,4)wish,wonder,think,hope等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等,而一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。例如:Ithoughtyoumighthavesome.我以为你想要一些。比较:Christinewasaninvalidallherlife.(含义:她已不在人间。)Christinehasbeenaninvalidallherlife.(含义:她现在还活着)Mrs.DarbylivedinKentuckyforsevenyears.(含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)Mrs.DarbyhaslivedinKentuckyforsevenyears.(含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)注意:用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。1)动词want,hope,wonder,think,intend等。例如:Didyouwantanythingelse?您还要些什么吗?Iwonderedifyoucouldhelpme.能不能帮我一下。2)情态动词could,would。例如:Couldyoulendmeyourbike?你的自行车,能借用一些吗?3.一般将来时1) shall用于第一人称,常被will所代替。will在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称。例如:,WhichparagraphshallIreadfirst?我先读哪一段呢?Willyoubeathomeatseventhisevening?今晚七点回家好吗?2) begoingto+不定式,表示将来。a.主语的意图,即将做某事。例如:Whatareyougoingtodotomorrow?明天打算作什么呢?b.计划,安排要发生的事。例如:Theplayisgoingtobeproducednextmonth。这出戏下月开播。c.有迹象要发生的事。例如:Lookatthedarkclouds,thereisgoingtobeastorm.看那乌云,快要下雨了。 3) be+不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。例如:WearetodiscussthereportnextSaturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告。4)beaboutto+不定式,意为马上做某事。例如:HeisabouttoleaveforBeijing.他马上要去北京。注意:beabouttodo不能与tomorrow,nextweek等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。4.一般现在时表将来1)下列动词come,go,arrive,leave,start,begin,return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。例如:, Thetrainleavesatsixtomorrowmorning.火车明天上午六点开。 Whendoesthebusstar?Itstarsintenminutes.汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。2)以here,there等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行。例如:Herecomesthebus.=Thebusiscoming.车来了。Theregoesthebell.=Thebellisringing.铃响了。3)在时间或条件句中。例如:WhenBillcomes(不是willcome),askhimtowaitforme.比尔来后,让他等我。I'llwritetoyouassoonasIarrivethere.我到了那里,就写信给你。4)在动词hope,takecarethat,makesurethat等的宾语从句中。例如:Ihopetheyhaveanicetimenextweek.我希望他们下星期玩得开心。Makesurethatthewindowsareclosedbeforeyouleavetheroom.离开房间前,务必把窗户关了。 5.用现在进行时表示将来下列动词come,go,arrive,leave,start,begin,return等现在进行时可以表示将来。例如:,I'mleavingtomorrow.明天我要走了。Areyoustayingheretillnextweek?你会在这儿呆到下周吗?6.现在完成时现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态,其结果的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或状态。其构成:have(has)+过去分词。7.比较一般过去时与现在完成时1)一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。一般过去时的时间状语:yesterday,lastweek,…ago,in1980,inOctober,justnow等,皆为具体的时间状语。现在完成时的时间状语:for,since,sofar,ever,never,just,yet,till/until,uptonow,inpastyears,always等,皆不确定的时间状语。共同的时间状语:thismorning,tonight,thisApril,now,already,recently,lately等。3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live,teach,learn,work,study,know.。,一般过去时常用的非持续性动词有come,go,leave,start,die,finish,become,getmarried等。例如:Isawthisfilmyesterday.(强调看的动作发生过了)Ihaveseenthisfilm.(强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了)Whydidyougetupsoearly?(强调起床的动作已发生过了)Whohasn'thandedinhispaper?(强调有卷子未交,疑为不公平竞争)HehasbeenintheLeagueforthreeyears.(在团内的状态可延续)HehasbeenaLeaguememberforthreeyears.(是团员的状态可持续)句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如yesterday,last,week,in1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。(错)Tomhaswrittenalettertohisparentslastnight.(对)Tomwrotealettertohisparentslastnight.8.用于现在完成时的句型1)Itisthefirst/secondtime....that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。例如:ItisthefirsttimethatIhavevisitedthecity.,这是我第一次访问这城市。Thisisthefirsttime(that)I'veheardhimsing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。注意:Itwasthethirdtimethattheboyhadbeenlate.2)Thisis+形容词最高级+that…结构,that从句要用现在完成时。例如:ThisisthebestfilmthatI've(ever)seen.这是我看过的最好的电影。9.过去完成时1)概念:表示过去的过去----|----------|--------|---->其构成是had+过去分词构成。那时以前那时现在 2)用法a.在told,said,knew,heard,thought等动词后的宾语从句。例如:Shesaid(that)shehadneverbeentoParis.她告诉我她曾去过巴黎。b.状语从句在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。例如:,Whenthepolicearrived,thethieveshadrunaway.警察到达时,小偷们早就跑了。c.表示意向的动词,如hope,wish,expect,think,intend,mean,suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"。例如:Wehadhopedthatyouwouldcome,butyoudidn't.那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来。3) 过去完成时的时间状语before,by,until,when,after,once,assoonas。例如:HesaidthathehadlearnedsomeEnglishbefore.他说过他以前学过一些英语。Bythetimehewastwelve,Edisonhadbegantomakealivingbyhimself.到了十二岁那年,爱迪生开始自己谋生。Tomwasdisappointedthatmostoftheguestshadleftwhenhearrivedattheparty.汤姆失望了,因为他到达晚会时,大部分客人已经走了。10.用一般过去时代替过去完成时1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用then,and,but等连词时,多用一般过去时。例如:Whenshesawthemouse,shescreamed.她看到老鼠,就叫了起来。,MyauntgavemeahatandIlostit.姑妈给了我一顶帽子,我把它丢了。2)两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完成时。例如:WhenIheardthenews,Iwasveryexcited.3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。例如:OurteachertoldusthatColumbusdiscoveredAmericain1492.11.将来完成时 1)构成willhavedone 2)概念a.状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。例如:Theywillhavebeenmarriedfor20yearsbythen.到那时他们结婚将有二十年了。b.动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或获得的经验。例如: YouwillhavereachedShanghaibythistimetomorrow.明天此时,你已经到达上海了12现在进行时现在进行时的基本用法:,a.表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情。例如:Wearewaitingforyou.我们正在等你。b.习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。例如:Mr.Greeniswritinganothernovel. 他在写另一部小说。(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)c.表示渐变,这样的动词有:get,grow,become,turn,run,go,begin等。例如:Theleavesareturningred.叶子在变红。It'sgettingwarmerandwarmer.天越来越热了。d.与always,constantly,forever等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。例如:Youarealwayschangingyourmind.你老是改变主意。13.过去进行时1)概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作延续的时候,另一个短动作发生。3)常用的时间状语有thismorning,thewholemorning,alldayyesterday,fromninetotenlastevening,when,while等。例如:Mybrotherfellwhilehewasridinghisbicycleand,hurthimself.我兄弟骑车时摔了下来,受了伤。Itwasrainingwhentheyleftthestation.他们离开车站时,正下着雨。WhenIgottothetopofthemountain,thesunwasshining. 我到达山顶时,阳光灿烂。14.将来进行时1)概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。例如: She'llbecomingsoon.她会很快来的。 I'llbemeetinghimsometimeinthefuture.将来我一定去见他。注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说I'llbehavingatalkwithher.2)常用的时间状语有soon,tomorrow,thisevening,onSunday,bythistime,tomorrow,intwodays,tomorrowevening等。例如:Bythistimetomorrow,I'llbelyingonthebeach.明天此时,我正躺在海滩上呢。15.一般现在时代替一般将来时When,while,before,after,till,once,assoonas,solongas,bythetime,if,incase(that),unless,evenif,whether,themoment,theminute,theday,theyear,immediately,等引导的时间状语从句,条件句中,用一般现在时代替将来时。例如: HeisgoingtovisitherauntthedayhearrivesinBeijing.他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。16.一般现在时代替一般过去时1)"书上说","报纸上说"等。例如:Thenewspapersaysthatit'sgoingtobecoldtomorrow.报纸上说明天会很冷的。 2)叙述往事,使其生动。例如:Napoleon'sarmynowadvancesandthegreatbattlebegins.拿破仑的军队正在向前挺进,大战开始了17.一般现在时代替现在完成时1)有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时,如hear,tell,learn,write,understand,forget,know,find,say,remember等。例如:Ihear(=haveheard)hewillgotoLondon.我听说了他将去伦敦。Iforget(=haveforgotten)howoldheis.我忘了他多大了。2)用句型"Itis…since…"代替"Ithasbeen…since…"。例如:Itis(=hasbeen)fiveyearssincewelastmet.从我们上次见面以来,五年过去了。,18.一般现在时代替现在进行时。在Herecomes…/Theregoes…等句型里,用一般现在时代替现在进行时。例如:Theregoesthebell.铃响了。19.现在进行时代替将来时1)表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。例如:Areyoustayingwithusthisweekend?和我们一起度周末好吗?Weareleavingsoon.我们马上就走。2)渐变动词,如get,run,grow,become,begin以及瞬间动词die等。例如:Heisdying.他要死了。20.时态一致1)如果从句所叙述的为真理或相对不变的事实,则用现在时。例如:Atthattime,peopledidnotknowthattheearthmoves.那时,人们不知道地球是动的。Hetoldmelastweekthatheiseighteen.上星期他告诉我他十八岁了。2)宾语从句中的,助动词ought(应该应当),need,must,dare(敢胆敢)的时态是不变的。例如:HethoughtthatIneednottellyouthetruth.,他认为我不必告诉你真相。三.巩固练习:1、I’llgivethebooktohimassoonashe________back.2、Hasthebaby________cryingyet?(stoped)3、Idon’tknowwhetherMother __________metoBeijingnextmonth.(takes)4、She_______onhercoatandwentout.(put)5、“Whataretheydoing?”“They aragetting__________readyforthesportsmeeting.”(get)6、Theboyaskedhismother_hadleted_______himgoandplaybasketball.(let)7、I’msorrytokeepyou____________foralongtime.(waited)8、It________(take)himhalfanhour _______(finish)hishomeworkyesterday.9、Ifit________aninterestingfilm,we’llseeittomorrow.(be)10、Theyusually________(do)theirhomeworkaftersupper.11、Listen!Who_____________(sing)inthenextroom,now?12、__________(be)yourparentsinShanghailastyear?13、Mr.Yu_____________(teach)usmathssince1982.14、TheywillhaveatriptotheGreatWallifit_________(notrain)tomorrow.15、LiMingoften_________(listen)totheradiointhemorning.16、A:“Father,mayIgooutandplayfootball?”B:“_____you____(do)yourhomework?”17、Allthepeopleinthetownareglad______(hear)thatafamousmusician___aconcertthisSaturdayevening.(give)18、Ourteachertoldusifit_____(notsnow)wewouldvisittheScienceMuseumthenextday.19、Theyoften_______(play)footballintheafternoon.20、A:What’reyoudoingDad?B:I _______ (mend)theradio.21、Let’s_______(carry)theboxestothehouse.22、Yesterdayshe______ (want)verymuchtoseethefilm,butshecouldn’t__(get)aticket.,23、I_________(write)toyouassoonasIgettoShanghai.24、Mike___________(visit)severalplacessincehecametoBeijing.25、He___________(write)fourletterstohiswifeeverymonth.26、Don’tmakeanynoise,Grandma___________(sleep).27、Hisaunt___________(do)somecookingwhenhecamein.28、Whenthey___________ (reach)thestation,thetrainhadalreadyleft.29、There___________ (be)ameetingnextMonday.30、We___________(know)eachothersinceourboyhood..31、Sometimesmyfather___________(come)backhomelate.32、They___________(have)anEnglisheveningnextweek.33、I’mveryglad___________(hear)that.34、WeiFangisn’there.She___________(go)tothereading-room.,35、Thestory___________(happen)longago.36、They___________(visit)theHistoryMuseumlastweek.37、ZhangHong___________(make)manyfriendssinceshecametoParis.38、She___________(go)tothecinemawithherclassmatestomorrowevening.39、Stayhere,bag.Don’tgoout.It___________(rain)now.40、LiPing___________(write)acompositioneveryweek.41、Thescientist___________(give)usatalkyesterday.42、Myparents___________(live)inBeijingsince1949.43、Look!Theyoungworker___________(show)thestudentsaroundthefactorynow.44、They___________(build)anewbridgeovertherivernextyear.45、Thestudents___________(clean)theirclassroomtomorrow.46、Thewindowsofourlab___________(clean)once,aweek.47、Ourteacher___________(join)thepartytwentyyearsago.48、Theboys___________(have)abasketballmatchnow.Let’s___(go)and_____(watch).49、She___________(work)inthisfactoryfortenyears.50、“Whatmakesyou___________(think)I’mafarmer?”theFrenchmanasked.四.答案comesstoppedwilltakeputaregettingtoletwaitingtook…tofinishisdoissingingWashastaughtdoesn’trainlistensHave…donetohear…willgivedidn’tsnowplayammendingcarrywanted,getwillwritehasvisitedwritesissleepingwasdoingreachedwillbehaveknowncomeswillhavetohearhasgone,happenedvisitedhasmadewillgoisrainingwritesgavehavelivedisshowingwillbuildwillcleaniscleanedjoinedarehaving,go…watchhasworkedthink,第三章动词的语态一.概念:动词的语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和谓语之间语法或语义的关系.英语的语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态.主动语态用于主动句,表示主语是动作的执行者.被动语态用于被动句,表示主语是动作的承受者.主动语态的构成方式与动词时态相同,而被动语态由助动词be+过去分词构成,有人称,数,时态的变化.相关知识点精讲1.let的用法 1)当let后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带to的不定式。例如:Theyletthestrangego.他们放陌生人走了。--->Thestrangewasletgo. 2)当let后宾补较长时,let通常不用被动语态,而用allow或permit代替。例如:Thenurseletmegotoseemyclassmateinthehospital.那护士让我去探望住院的同学。---->Iwasallowed/permittedtoseemyclassmateinthehospital.2.短语动词的被动语态短语动词是一个整体,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。例如:,MysisterwillbetakencareofbyGrandma.我妹妹由奶奶照顾。Suchathinghasneverbeenheardofbefore.这样的事闻所未闻。3.表示"据说"或"相信"的词组,基本上由believe,consider,declare(断言宣布),expect,feel,report,say,see,suppose,think,understand等组成。例如:Itissaidthat…据说Itisreportedthat…据报道Itisbelievedthat… 大家相信 Itishopedthat… 大家希望Itiswellknownthat…众所周知Itisthoughtthat… 大家认为Itissuggestedthat… 据建议 Itistakengrantedthat…被视为当然 Ithasbeendecidedthat…大家决定Itmustberememberthat…务必记住的是4.不用被动语态的情况 1)不及物动词或不及物动词短语,如appear,diedisappear,end(vi.结束),fail,happen,last,lie,remain,sit,spread,stand,breakout,cometrue,,fallasleep,keepsilence,loseheart,takeplace等没有无被动语态。例如:Afterthefire,verylittleremainedofmyhouse.大火过后,我家烧得所剩无几。比较:rise,fall,happen是不及物动词;raise,seat是及物动词。要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。2)不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语,如fit,have,hold,marry,own,wish,cost,notice,watchagreewith,arriveat/in,shakehandswith,succeedin,sufferfrom,happento,takepartin,walkinto,belongto等。例如: Thiskeyjustfitsthelock.这把钥匙只配这把锁。Yourstoryagreeswithwhathadalreadybeenheard.你说的与我们听说的一致。3)系动词无被动语态,如appear,bebecome,fall,feel,get,grow,keep,look,remain,seem,smell,sound,stay,taste,turn等。例如:Itsoundsgood.听上去不错。4)带同源宾语的及物动词如die/death,dream/dream,,live/life等,以及反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态。例如:Shedreamedabaddreamlastnight.她昨晚做了个恶梦。5)当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。例如:(对)Shelikestoswim.(错)Toswimislikedbyher.5.主动形式表示被动意义 1)wash,clean,cook,iron,look,cut,sell,read,wear,feel,draw,write,sell等。例如:Thebooksellswell.这本书销路好。Thisknifecutseasily.这刀子很好用。 2)blame,let(出租),remain,keep,rent,build等。例如:Iwastoblamefortheaccident.事故发生了,我该受指责。Muchworkremains.还有许多活要干。 3)在need,require,want,worth(形容词),deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。例如:Thedoorneedsrepairing.=Thedoorneedstoberepaired.门该修了。Thisbookisworthreading. 这本书值得一读。4)特殊结构:makesb.heard/understood,(使别人能听见/理解自己)等。例如:Explainitclearlyandmakeyourselfunderstood.解释清楚些,让别人理解你的话。6.被动形式表示主动意义,如bedetermined,bepleased,begraduated(from),beprepared(for),beoccupied(in),getmarried等。例如:Heisgraduatedfromafamousuniversity.他毕业于一所有名的大学。注意:表示同某人结婚,用marrysb.或getmarriedtosb.均可。例如:Hemarriedarichgirl.他与一个富妞结婚了。Hegotmarriedtoarichgirl.7.need/want/require/worth当need,want,require,beworth后面接doing时,表示的是被动意义。例如:Yourhairwantscutting. 你的头发该理了。Thefloorrequireswashing.地板需要冲洗。三.巩固练习1.I___________(teach)herefortenyearssinceIfinishedschool.2.Wouldyoumindme__________(use)yourbike?,3.ThestudentsofClassTwo___________(sweep)theirclassroomnow.4.TheWhites____________(notlisten)totheradioatthattime.5.It'sbettertogivethan__________(receive).6.Howlong______you_______(live)inthistown?7.You_______(come)herelastyear,______you?8.----When______you______(see)him?----I______(see)himlastSunday.9.Shesaidthatthecar___________(use)thenextweek.10.Ididn'tknowwhat__________(happen)toChinainacentury.11.WhenIgottothestation,thetrain____already______(leave).12.Thestonebridge______________(build)inourhometownfortenyears.13.Thedeskmust______(clean)onceaday.14.Thedog_________(lie)onthefloorwhenIcamein..15.It_________(rain)heavilywhenIgothome.,16.Hermother____________(cook)atthistimeyesterday.17.Thestudents_____________(do)theirhomework.__________(notmake)anynoise!18.----______youever_______(be)toBeijing?----Yes.I________(go)therelastweek.19.He'lltelephoneusassoonashe_________(arrive)there.20.Jiefangtrucks____________(make)inChangchun.21.Apenisusedfor__________(write).22.Allthatmust________(do).23.Myfriendcan'tdecidewhichpairoftrousers____________(choose).Sosheaskedmetogoshoppingwithher.24.Theyfindituseful__________(learn)English.25.Theoldmanoften_________(tell)thechildrenastoryintheevening.Thiseveninghe________(tell)twostories.26.Theradio__________(use)onceinaweekinourclass.It____________(notuse)yesterdaybecausetherewassomethingwrongwithit.,27.Wouldpleasetellushow___________(make)thewatch________(work)?28.Shedoesn'tknowwhat_________(do)andwhere__________(go).四.答案havetaughtusingaresweepingweren’tlisteningtoreceivehave…livedcame…didn’tdid…see,sawwouldbeusedwouldhappenhad…lefthavebeenbuiltbecleanedwaslyingwasrainingwascookingaredoing,Don’tmakehave…beeen,wentarrivesaremadewritingbedonetochoosetolearntells,willtell第四章动词的语气一.概念语气有三种:陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气.语气表示说话人对劝词所示示的动作或所处的状态持有的态度或看法.二.相关知识点精讲,1.辨别if引导真实条件句和if引导的虚拟条件句的区别Ifhehastime,hewillgowithus.=Probablyhehastimeandwillgowithus.Ifhehadtime,hewouldgowithus.=Butinfacthehasnotime.2.虚拟条件句中主句和从句的谓与动词构成形式如下表if条件句中的谓与动词主句的谓与动词与现在的事实相反1.行为动词用did形式2.be动词用wereshouldwouldcould+动词原形might与过去的事实相反had+doneshouldwouldcould+have+donemight与将来的事实相反1.行为动词用did2.should+动词原形shouldwouldcould+动词原形,3.wereto+动词原形might3.混合时间的虚拟语气如果条件句中的动作和主句的动作不是同时发生,主句和从句的谓语动词的形式应分别根据各自所表示的时间加以调整。1)0IfIhadreceivedthepassportyesterday,Iwouldstarttoday.2)Ifhehadtelephonedmelastnight,Iwouldseehimnow.3)Ifhehadfollowedthedoctor’sadvice,hewouldbeallrightnow.4)IfChinahadnotbeenliberated,theworkingpeoplewouldstillbeleadingamiserablelife.4.should/could/might/oughtto+havedone表示“过去本应该/可以做而实际上却没做”needn’thavedone表示“过去没必要作而实际上做了”5.虚拟语气中的倒装句如果虚拟语气的条件从句谓语动词中含有were,had,could,should,有时可将if省去,而将条件从句的主语置于were,had,should,could之后。Hadyouinvitedus,wewouldhavecometoyour,party.WereIyou,Iwoulddomorepracticeafterclass.Couldshelendusahelpinghand,shewoulddoso.6.wish后面的宾语从句的谓语动词应使用虚拟语气,表示“可惜…;….就好了;悔不该…;但愿…。”主句谓语从句谓语wish时态谓语动词的形式现在时表示与wish同时发生动词用过去时be动词用were过去时表示在wish之前发生的动作动词用haddonebe用hadbeen将来时表示在wish之后发生的动作动词用woulddo;shoulddobe用wouldbe;shouldbe1)IwishIknewthekeytotheanswer.2)IwishIweretenyearsyounger.3)IwishthatIhadgonetothefootballmatchlastweek.4)Iwishthatyouhadbeenhereyesterday.,5)Hewishesthatwewouldvisittheoldschool.7.表示命令或建议动词suggest,insist,propose,desire,demand,request,order,command后的宾语从句中应使用虚拟should+动词原形;should不可用would来替代;主句所使用的动词时态不限。8.suggest为“建议去做…;命令…”从句用should+do为“说明;暗示”,从句用过去时或过去完成时。1)ThedoctorsuggestedthatIshouldtakethemedicinethreetimesaday.2)Thedoctorsuggestedthatmygrandmotherhadcaughtabadcold.9.insist“坚持要去做…,坚持应该去做”,从句用should+do为“坚持表明,坚持说/解释”,从句用过去时或过去完成时。10.虚拟语气也用于表语从句和主语从句中,表示间接的命令、要求、请求、建议、决定等,主句的主语通常是suggestion,proposal,request,order,idea等。表语从句中的谓语动词是should+动词原型,should可以省略。11.在主语从句中,当从句用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜等,从句的谓语动词用需拟语气形式。其谓语动词时should+动词原型,或should省略。三.巩固练习,1.Iftherewerenosubjunctivemood,English_________mucheasier.A.willbeB.wouldhavebeenC.couldhavebeenD.wouldbe2.IfI_____you,I’djointhearmy.A.amB.wasC.wereD.wouldbe3.Ifhe_______tomorrow,hewouldfindMrWangintheoffice.A.comesB.willcomeC.shouldcomeD.come4.Ifit_______nextweek,thecropswouldbesaved.A.rainsB.willrainsC.wouldrainD.shouldrain5.IfI_______it,Iwoulddoitinadifferentway.A.weretodoB.doC.haddoneD.wastodo6.Supposingtheweather________bad,wherewouldyougo?A.isB.willbeC.wereD.be7.Ifhehadworkedharder,he_________.,A.wouldsucceedB.hadsucceededC.shouldsucceedD.wouldhavesucceeded8.Ifhe________,he_________thatfood.A.waswarned;wouldnottakeB.hadbeenwarned;wouldnothavetakenC.wouldbewarned;hadnottakenD.wouldhavebeenwarned;hadnottaken9.Ifmylawyer_________herelastSaturday,he_______mefromgoing.A.hadbeen;wouldhavepreventedB.hadbeen;wouldpreventC.were;wouldpreventD.were;wouldhaveprevented10.Ifhe______it,he_______it.A.hadseen;couldhavebelievedB.saw;couldn’tbelieveC.saw;couldn’thavebelievedD.hasseen;hadbelieved11.—Doyouthinkthethiefenteredthroughthewindow?—No,ifhehad,Idon’tbelieve,_______brokentheliving-room’swindow.,A.hewouldhaveB.hemusthaveC.hehadD.shouldhehave12.—DidyougoswimminglastSunday? —No.Wewouldhavegone______nicer.A.iftheweatherwasB.wouldtheweatherhavebeenC.hadtheweatherbeenD.shouldtheweatherbe13.______it______foryourhelp,Icouldn’thavemadeanyprogress.A.Had;notbeenB.Should;notbeenC.Did;notbeenD.Not;been14._______today,hewouldgettherebyFriday.A.WouldhaveleftB.WasheleavingC.WerehetoleaveD.Ifheleaves15.Itisorderedthatanewbridge______overthewideriver.A.shouldbebuiltB.wouldbuiltC.willbebuiltD.built四.答案1.D2.C3.C4.D5.A6.C7.D8.B9.A10.A11.D12.C13.A14.C15.A,第5章助动词一.概念:助动词是帮助主要动词构成各种时态,语态,语气以及否定或疑问结构的动词.助动词分为时态助动词和结构助动词两种.二.相关知识点精讲:1.助动词be的用法1)be+现在分词,构成进行时态。例如:Theyarehavingameeting. 他们正在开会。Englishisbecomingmoreandmoreimportant.英语现在越来越重要。2) be+过去分词,构成被动语态。例如:ThewindowwasbrokenbyTom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。Englishistaughtthroughouttheworld. 世界各地都教英语。3)be+动词不定式,可表示下列内容:a.表示最近、未来的计划或安排。例如:HeistogotoNewYorknextweek.. 他下周要去纽约。Wearetoteachthefreshmen. 我们要教新生。说明:这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。b.表示命令。例如:,Youaretoexplainthis. 对此你要做出解释。Heistocometotheofficethisafternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。c. 征求意见。例如:HowamItoanswerhim? 我该怎样答复他?Whoistogothere? 谁该去那儿呢?d.表示相约、商定。例如:Wearetomeetattheschoolgateatseventomorrowmorning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。2.助动词have的用法1)have+过去分词,构成完成时态。例如:HehasleftforLondon. 他已去了伦敦。Bytheendoflastmonth,theyhadfinishedhalfoftheirwork.上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。2)have+been+现在分词,构成完成进行时。例如:IhavebeenstudyingEnglishfortenyears.我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。3)have+been+过去分词,构成完成式被动语态。例如:EnglishhasbeentaughtinChinaformanyyears.中国教英语已经多年。3.助动词do的用法1)构成一般疑问句。例如:,DoyouwanttopasstheCET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗?DidyoustudyGerman? 你们学过德语吗?2)do+not构成否定句。例如:Idonotwanttobecriticized.我不想挨批评。Hedoesn'tliketostudy.他不想学习。Inthepast,manystudentsdidnotknowtheimportanceofEnglish. 过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。3)构成否定祈使句。例如:Don'tgothere. 不要去那里。Don'tbesoabsent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。说明:构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。4)放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气。例如:Docometomybirthdayparty. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。Ididgothere. 我确实去那儿了。Idomissyou. 我确实想你。5)用于倒装句。例如:NeverdidIhearofsuchathing.我从未听说过这样的事情。Onlywhenwebeginourcollegelifedowerealize,theimportanceofEnglish.进了大学以后,我们才认识到英语的重要性。说明:引导此类倒装句的副词有never,seldom,rarely,little,only,so,well等。6)用作代动词。例如:----DoyoulikeBeijing? --你喜欢北京吗?----Yes,Ido. --是的,喜欢。(do用作代动词,代替likeBeijing.)Heknowshowtodriveacar,doesn'the?他知道如何开车,对吧?4.助动词shall和will的用法shall和will作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时。例如: IshallstudyharderatEnglish.我将更加努力地学习英语。 HewillgotoShanghai.他要去上海。说明:在过去的语法中,语法学家说shall用于第一人称,will只用于第二、第三人称。现在,尤其是在口语中,will常用于第一人称,但shall只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较:Heshallcome. 他必须来。(shall有命令的意味。)Hewillcome. 他要来。(will,只与动词原形构成一般将来时。)5.助动词should,would的用法1)should无词义,只是shall的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称。例如:ItelephonedhimyesterdaytoaskwhatIshoulddonextweek.我昨天给他打电话,问他我下周干什么。比较:"WhatshallIdonextweek?"Iasked."我下周干什么?"我问道。可以说,shall变成间接引语时,变成了should。2)would也无词义,是will的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称。例如:Hesaidhewouldcome.他说他要来。比较:"Iwillgo,"hesaid.他说:"我要去那儿。"变成间接引语,就成了Hesaidhewouldcome。原来的will变成would,go变成了come.。6.短语动词动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词。例如:Turnofftheradio. 把收音机关上。(turnoff是短语动词)短语动词的构成基本有下列几种:1)动词+副词,如:blackout;2)动词+介词,如:lookinto;,3)动词+副词+介词,如:lookforwardto。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词三.巩固练习1.Ifitisfinetomorrow,we______afootballmatch.a.haveb.willhavec.hasd.shallhas2.Whenhewasatschool,he______earlyandtakeawalkbeforebreakfast.a.willriseb.shallriseb.shouldrisewouldrise3.Inthepast30yearsChina______greatadvancesinthesocialistrevolutionandsocialistconstruction.a.hasmadeb.havemadec.hadmaded.havingmade4.I______gotobeduntilI______finishedmywork.a.don’t/hadb.didn’t/havec.didn’t/hadd.don’t/have5.______youthinkhe______backbydinnertime?a.Do/havecomeb.Did/willhavecomec.Does/willcomed.Do/willhavecome,6.Hesaidthathedroppedhisbagwhenhe______forthebus.a.wasruningb.wasrunningc.wererunningd.isrunning7.Nosooner______hearrivedhomethanhe______tostartonanotherjourney.a.has/wasaskedb.have/wereaskedc.had/isaskedd.had/wasasked8.“______yougivemearoomforthenight?”Iaskedonarrivingatthehotel.a.Shouldb.Canc.Mightd.May9.Therearenineofthem,so______getintothecaratthesametime.a.theymaynotatallb.alltheymaynotc.theycan’talld.alltheycan’t10.“Wedidn’tseehimatthelectureyesterday.”“He______it.”a.mustn’tattendb.cannothaveattendedc.wouldhavenotattendedd.needn’thaveattended11.“Yourealizethatyouweredrivingat100mph,don’tyou?”,“No,officer.I______.Thiscarcan’tdomorethan80.”a.didn’tneedtobeb.maynothavebeenc.couldn’thavebeend.needn’thavebeen12.hewasagoodrunnersohe______escapefromthepolice.a.mightb.succeededtoc.wouldd.wasableto13.Ifthey______,ourplanwillfallflat.a.areco-operatingb.hadnotco-operatedc.won’tco-operated.didn’tco-operate14.Ihoped______myletter.a.hertoanswerb.thatshewouldanswerc.thatsheanswersd.heranswering15.He______liveinthecountrythaninthecity.a.prefersb.likestoc.hadbetterd.wouldrather16.______toseeafilmwithustoday?a.Didyoulikeb.Wouldyoulikec.Willyouliked.Haveyouliked17.I’msorry,butIhadnoalternative.Isimply______whatIdid.,a.mustdob.hadtodoc.oughttohavedoned.havetodo18.“Timeisrunningout,______?”a.hadn’twebettergotstartb.hadn’twebettergetstartc.hadn’twebettergetstartedd.hadn’twebetternotstarted19.Noone______thattohisface.a.daressayb.daressayingc.daresayd.daretosay20.Thestudentsintheclassroom______nottomakesomuchnoise.a.needb.oughtc.mustd.dare21.You______lastweekifyouwerereallyseriousaboutyourwork.a.oughttocomeb.oughttobecomingc.oughthavecomed.oughttohavecome22.Theelephantsought______hoursagobythekeepers.a.tobefedb.tofeedc.tobeingfedd.tohavebeenfed,23.“Iwonderwhythey’relate.”“They______thetrain.”a.canhavemissedb.couldmissc.mayhavemissedd.mightmiss24.“Tomgraduatedfromcollegeataveryyoungage.”“He______havebeenanoutstandingstudent.”a.mustb.couldc.shouldd.might25.You______theexaminationagainsinceyouhadalreadypassedit.a.needn’thavetakenb.didn’tneedtotakec.needn’ttaked.mustn’ttake26.Heisreallyincompetent!Theletter______yesterday.a.shouldbefinishedtypingb.mustbefinishedtypingc.musthavefinishedtypingc.shouldhavebeenfinishedtyping27.Theboytoldhisfatherthathewouldrather______anastronaut.a.becomeb.tobecomec.becomingd.became,28.Whenwereachedthestation,thetrainhadstillnotarrived;sowe______.a.needednottohurryb.needn’thavehurriedc.neednottohavehurriedd.didn’tneedtohurry29.Sinceyourroommateisvisitingherfamilythisweekend,_____youliketohavedinnerwithustonight?a.willb.won’tc.wouldn’td.do30.Hewasafraidwhathehaddone______adisastrouseffectonhiscareer.a.mighthaveb.couldbec.havebeend.shallbe四.答案1-10BDACDBDBCB11-20CDCBDBBCCB21-30DDCABDABCA第六章情态动词一.概念:情态动词是表示能力,义务,必须,猜测等说话人的语气或情态的动词.二.相关知识点精讲:1.can1)表能力,can表能力时意味着凭体力或脑力或技术等可以无甚阻力地去做某事。Icanclimbthispole.我能爬这根杆子。Heisonlyfour,buthecanread.他只有4岁,但已认得字了。Firecan’tdestroygold.火烧不毁金子。因为can不能和其它助动词连用,所以表示将来式时用willbeabletoYouwillbeabletoskateafteryouhavepracticedittwoorthreetimes.你练习两三次后就会溜冰了。2)表可能性多用于否定与疑问结构中,但也可用在肯定句中。Canthenewsbetrue?这消息可能是真的吗?Itcan’tbetrue.它不可能是真的。Whatcanhepossiblymean?他可能是什么意思?can用在肯定句中表示理论上的可能性(一时的可能)。AhorseinthecenterofLondoncancostalotofmoney.Attendingtheballcanbeveryexciting.Theroadcanbeblocked.这条路可能会不通的。may在肯定句中表示现实的可能性。,Theroadmaybeblocked.这条路可能不通了。3)表示允许(和may意思相近)常见于口语。Can(May)Icomein?我能进来吗?CanIsmokehere?我可以在这里抽烟吗?2.could的用法1)表过去的可能和许可,(多用于间接引语中)Atthattimewethoughtthestorycouldnotbetrue.那时我们认为所说的事不可能是真的。FathersaidIcouldswimintheriver.爸爸说我可以在河里游泳。2)表过去的能力IcouldswimwhenIwasonlysix.我刚六岁就能游泳。Could在肯定句中表示过去的能力时,常表抽象的一般的能力。Hecouldbeverynaughtywhenhewasachild.他小时候会是很顽皮的。3)表“允许”。可表示委婉客气的提出问题或陈述看法CouldIuseyourbike?Yes,youcan.他会记得那时吗?I’mafraidIcouldn’tgiveyouananswertoday.,恐怕我今天不能回答你。Theteachersaidyoucouldgotothestoreforsweets.老师说你可以去商店买糖。3)Could/can+havedone结构表示对过去发生的事情的“怀疑”或“不肯定”。could加完成式还用于肯定句时一般表过去可能完成而却未完成的动作。Cantheyhavewonthebasketballmatch?他们赢了那场篮球赛吗?Whatyoureferredtojustnowcanhavemadeherverysad.你刚刚所谈到的可能令他很伤心。Youcouldhavecompletedthetaskalittleearlier.你本来能早点完成任务的。(但事实上并没有提前完成任务)IcouldhavepassedmyexaminationeasilybutImadetoomanystupidmistakes.我本可以轻易通过考试,但我犯了太多不该犯的错误。如表具体做某一件事的能力时,则须用beableto.Hewasabletotranslatethearticlewithoutadictionary.他可以不用词典翻译那篇文章。Can表示一贯的能力,beableto表示客观能力和通过努力可以达到的能力,Ican’tswim.ButIamsureIwillbeabletoswimthroughmorepracticing.Thefirespreadthroughthehotel,buteveryonewasabletogetoutWhentheboatsankhewasabletoswimtothebank3.may的用法1)表示请求、可以、允许。Youmaydrivethetractor.你可以开那台拖拉机。2)当回答由may引起的问题时,否定答语要用mustnot,表示“不许可”、“不应该”、“不行”。MayIcomein?Yes,youmay.No,youcan’tNo,youmaynot.No,youmustn’tNo,you’dbetternot.3)may/might推测性用法可能Hemayberight.Hemaynotcometoday(可能不)Hemay/mightcometomorrow.,注意:1只用于肯定和否定句中,不用于疑问句中。2might比may可能性更小,Hemightgetajob.Hemaygetajob.3mayno可能不cannot不可能HemaynotcomeHecan’tcome3)表建议(可和aswell连用)Youmay(might)aswellstaywhereyouare.你还是原地待着好。(mayaswell有“还是……的好”的含义)4)表祝愿Mayyoubehappy!might1)表过去的“可能”和“允许”多用于间接引语。Shesaidthathemighttakeherdictionary.她说他可以拿她的词典去用。除在间接引语中外,might一般不表示过去的“可能”与“许可”。表过去的“可能”可用could,表过去的“许可”可用were(was)allowedto。2)表现在的“可能”,其可能性要比may小。Electricironscouldbedangerous;theymightgiveyouasevereshock.电熨斗会有危险,它可能电着人。,3)may(might)+have+done表示对过去发生行为的推测,含有“想必”、“也许是”的意思。Itmayhavebeentrue.这事也许是真的。Hemightnothavesettledthequestion.他可能尚未解决那个问题。4.must的主要用法。1)表示必须、必要Wemustdoeverythingstepbystep.我们必须按部就班地做一切事情。Whymustyoualwaysbotherme?为什么你偏要打扰我呢。2)mustbe+表语的结构,通常表示猜测,含有“一定”之意。(只用在肯定句中)Hemustbeanhonestboy.他一定是个诚实的男孩。Thismustbeyourroom.这一定是你的房间。3)must的否定式有两个:当回答由must引起的问题时,否定答复要用needn’t或don’thaveto表示“不必”、“无须”、“用不着”、“不一定”的意义。当表示“不应该”、“不许可”、“禁止”时,就用mustnot。MustIgotomorrow?明天我必须去吗?Yes,please.是的,请吧!No,youneedn’t.不,你不必去。4)must+have+过去分词的结构,常用在肯定句中,表示对,过去发生行为的推测,含有“一定”、“准是”的意思。否定和疑问句用can。ShemusthavestudiedEnglishbefore.她以前一定学过英语。5.haveto的含义与must是很接近的,只是haveto比较强调客观需要,must着重说明主观看法。Imustcleantheroom.(主观想法)Ihavetocleantheroom.(客观需要)另外,haveto能用于更多时态:Wehadtobethereatten.我们得在十点钟到那里。Wewillhavetoreconsiderthewholething.这一切我们将不得不重新加以考虑。haveto的否定式:don’thavetodo表示“不必做……”之意。6.oughtto的用法Oughtto后接动词原形,表义务,但不及must那样具有信心,如:Youdon’tlookwell.Yououghttogotoseethedoctor.你气色不好,应该去看病。Oughtto用于否定句,其否定形式可缩略为oughtn’t,如:,Yououghtn’ttosmokesomuch.你不应该抽这么多烟。也可以用于疑问句,如:Oughtyoutosmokesomuch?你应该抽这样多烟吗?Oughtto在间接引语中表过去时形式不变,如:Hesaidyououghttotellthepolice.他说你应该去报告警察。7.shall的用法1)用于第一人称征求对方的意见,如:WhatshallIwearonthejourney?我路上穿什么好呢?Shallwedance?我们跳舞好吗?2)shall用于第二、三人称时表允诺,警告,命令,威胁(现已少见),如:Sheshallgethershare.她可以得到她的一份。Youshallhaveitbacktomorrow.你明天可以将它拿回。情态动词should一般不应被认为是情态动词shall的过去式,主要用法有:1)用于第一人称疑问句中询问对方的意愿,但语气较委婉温和,如:Whatshouldwedonow?我们现在该怎么办?2)表示应该、必须,常与must换用。例如:Weshould(must)masteraforeignlanguageatleast.我们应当至少掌握一门外语。,3)“should+be+表语”的结构,表示推测或惊奇。例如:Theyshouldbebackbynow.他们现在应该回来了吧。Iamsorrythatsheshouldbesocareless.我感到遗憾她竟会那样粗心。4)“should+have+过去分词”的结构,表示过去该做而实际上尚未做的动作或行为;其否定则表示发生了不应该发生的行为。其同义结构“oughttohave+过去分词”,表示过去“早应该”、“本当”之意,语气较强。例如:Ishouldhavethoughtofthat.这一点我是应当想到的。(但没想到)Theyshouldnothaveleftsosoon.他们不应当走得这么早。(但已走了)5)在“Itisnatural(strange,natural,necessary,surprised,impossible,important)that……”句型中,主语从句中的谓语动词要用should+动词原形”表示“理所当然”、“奇怪”、“必要”、“惊异”等的意思。在lest(以免)、forfear(that)(以防)、incase(以备万一)等之后也要用should+动词原形;在advise,sugest,order,demand,request等的从句中should+do”例如:Itisnecessarythathe(should)besentthereatonce. 有必要马上派他到那里去。Itisstrangethatheshouldsayso.他会说这样的话,真是奇怪。Letusgoatoncelestweshouldbelateforthetrain. 我们马上走吧,以免赶不上火车。8..will和would的用法1)表示意志,决心或愿望。例如: Surelywewillsupportallthepeopleintheworldintheirstruggleforpeace. 我们一定要支持全世界人民争取和平的斗争。 Hewouldnotletmetryit. 他不肯让我去试。2)will表示经常性、习惯性、倾向性,would表示过去的习惯行为。 Hewillsittherehourafterhourlookingatthetrafficgoby.他会经常一连几个小时坐在那儿观看来往的车辆。 HewouldcometoseemewhenhewasinBeijing.他在北京时,常来看望我。3)用于第二人称作主语的疑问句中,表示对对方的请求,would的语气比will委碗Would/willyoukindlytellmethewaytothestation?请问到火车站怎么走?4)表可能性Thiswillbethebookyouarelookingfor.,这可能就是你要找的书。Sheeouldbeabout60whenshedied.他死时大概60岁。9.need和dare的用法情态动词need实义动词need现Youneed(not)doYou(don’t)needtodo在时Heneed(not)doHeneeds(doesn’tneed)todo过Youneeded(didn’tneed)todo去时Heneeded(didn’tneed)todo将Youneed(not)doYouwill(not)needtodo来时Heneed(not)doHewill(not)needtodo句型时态动词情态动词dare实义动词dare肯定句现在时dareto少用dare/darestodo过去时dareto少用daredtodo否定句现在时daren’t/darenotdodo/doesnotdare(to)do,过去时darednotdodidnotdare(to)do疑问句现在时Darehedo?Doyou/Doeshedear(to)do?过去时Daredhedo?Didhedare(to)doneedn’thavev-ed表示过去做了某事,但没有做的必要,意为“本没必要…”。例如:Youneedn’thavewakenmeup;Idon’thavetogotoworktoday10.表推测的情态动词句子的反意疑问句Hemust/maybeintheroom,isn’the?Hecan’tbeintheroom,ishe?Hemusthavefinishedthework,hasn’the?Hemayhavedonetheworklastnight,didn’the?:情态动词+行为动词进行式情态动词+行为动词进行式(即情态动词+be+v-ing形式),表示推测或评论某动作现在是否正在进行。例如:1)Hemustbeplayingbasketballintheroom.2)Shemaybestayingathome.11.情态动词+行为动词完成进行式情态动词+行为动词完成进行式(即情态动词+havebeen+v-ing形式),表示推测或评论过去某动作是否正在进行或一直在进行。例如:,1)Theyshouldhavebeenmeetingtodiscusstheproblem.2)Hemay/mighthavebeenbuyingstampsinthepostofficewhenyousawhim.12.usedto+v,beusedto+v-ing和beusedto+v(1)usedto+v意为“过去常常”,“过去一直”;beusedto+v-ing/n(名词)意为“习惯于”;beusedto+v意为“被用来(做某事)”。(2)usedto只表示过去,而beusedto+v-ing/n可表示现在、过去或将来。例如:1)Heusedtosmoke.Nowhedoesn’t.2)He’squiteusedtohardwork/workinghard.3)Theknifeisusedtocutbread.13.用作情态动词的其它短语wouldrather,wouldsooner,would(just)assoon,hadrather,hadbetter,hadsooner,cannotbut,may(just)aswell等可用作情态动词。例如:1)Thesoldierwouldsoonerdiethansurrender.2)Thebravesoldierwouldassoondieasyieldtosuchanenemy.3)I’dratherwalkthantakeabus.4)Ifyoudon’tliketoswim,youmayjustaswell,stayathome.注:这些短语后一般直接跟动词原形.would(had)rather,would(had)sooner,would(just)assoon后可跟that引导的从句,that常省去,从句要用虚拟语气。对现在和将来的假设用过去时,对过去的假设用过去完成时。例如:1)IwouldratheryoucameonSunday.2)Iwouldsooneryouhadn’taskedmetospeakyesterday.巩固练习:1._____youready?(A)Are(B)Have(C)Will(D)Can2.____hereearly?(A)Willhe(B)Washe(C)Didhebe(D)Werehe3.I___happyaboutthepriceofeggs.(A)am't(B)amnot(C)donot(D)won’t4.SincelastyearI____himonlyonce.(A)haveseen(B)havebeenseeing(C)see(D)wasseeing5.Donald___sixteentomorrow.(A)isbeing(B)goingtobe(C)shallbe(D)willbe6.I___thestoryatall.,(A)don'tlike(B)like(C)amfondof(D)wouldlike7.Iwouldrather___thanplaynow.(A)tostudy(B)amstudying(C)study(D)studied8.I'dratheryou___anythingaboutitforthetimebeing.(A)do(B)didn'tdo(C)don't(D)didn't9.Thecar___muchmoney.(A)notcost(B)nothavecost(C)isn'tcost(D)didn'tcost10.I___liketoeatfish.(A)am(B)have(C)do(D)be11.___repeatthequestion?(A)ShallI(B)WillI(C)WouldyoulikethatI(D)DoyouwantthatI12.Myteacherknowsmorethan___.(A)myuncleknows(B)myuncledoes(C)theyknow(D)theydon'tknow13.He___tomeetusatthestation,butdidn'tseeus.(A)didgo(B)didwent(C)goes(D)had,14.Notonly____uslight.(A)doesthesungive(B)thesungives(C)givesthesun(D)thesundoesgive15.____youtellmewhathashappened?(A)May(B)Must(C)Can(D)Could16.Anne___tomorrow.(A)cansing(B)cantosing(C)isgoingsing(D)goingtosing17.You___handitinatonce,youmayhanditintomorrow.(A)needn't(B)maynot(C)can't(D)mustnot18.Telltheboythathe___intheriver.(A)swims(B)swim(C)swimming(D)toswim19.Joan___playonSaturday.(A)goingto(B)can(C)isgoing(D)canto20.SusanandIcangotothelecture___.butneithercanCharles(B)andsoChariescan(C)butCharlescan't(D)andCharlesalsocan四.答案1.(A)2,(B)3.(B)4.(A)5,(D)6,(A)7.(C)8.(B)9.(9)10,(C)11.(A)12.(B)13.(A)14.(A)15.(D),16.(A)17.(A)18.(B)19.(B)20,(C)第七章动词不定式一.相关知识点精讲:1.不定式作补语有些有动词+宾语+不定式的结构。例如:adviseallowcausechallengecommandcompeldrive驱使enableencourageforbidforceimpelinduceinstructinvitelike/loveorderpermitmakelethavewantgetwarnpersuaderequestsendtelltrainurge例如;Fatherwillnotallowustoplayonthestreet.父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。Theofficerorderedhismentofire.长官命令士兵开火。注意:有些动词如make,have,get,want,等可用不定式作做宾补,也可用分词作宾补。现在分词表达主动,也表达正在进行,过去分词表达被动。2)有些有动词+宾语+不定式的结构,不定式的动词往往是be,不定式一般可以省去。例如:considerfindbelievethinkdeclare(声称)appointguessfancy(设想)guessjudgeimagineknow例如:Webelievehimtobeguilty.我们相信他是有罪的。Weknowhimtobeafool.我们知道他是个笨蛋。(tobe不能省去)典型例题CharlesBabbageisgenerallyconsidered ___thefirstcomputer. A.toinvent B.inventingC.tohaveinventedD.havinginvented答案:C.一般没有consider+宾语+be以外不定式的结构,也没有consider+宾语+doing的结构,排除A、B、D。consider用动词be以外的不定式作宾补时,一般要求用不定式的完成式,故选C。3)有些动词可以跟there+tobe的结构。例如:believeexpectintendlikelovemean,preferwantwishunderstand  例如:Wedidn'texpecttheretobesomanypeoplethere.我们没料到会有那么多人在那里。Youwouldn’twanttheretobeanotherwar.你不至于想让另外一场战争发生吧。2.不定式作主语不定式作主语,往往用it作形式主语,真正的主语不定式放至句子的后面。例如:It'ssonicetohearyourvoice.听到你的声音真高兴。It'snecessaryforyoutolockthecarwhenyoudonotuseit.不用车的时候,锁车是有必要的。It'sverykindofyoutohelpus. 他帮助我们,他真好。Itseemedselfishofhimnottogivethemanything. 他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自私了。但是,用不定式作主语的句子中还有一个不定式作表语时,不能用Itis…to…的句型。另外,这样的句子,不能用动名词作表语。3.It'sforsb.和It'sofsb.,这样的句子中,由于表语形容词性质的不同,导致了不定式逻辑主语标志用for或of的区别。1)forsb.句型中的形容词一般为表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy,hard,difficult,interesting,impossible等:例如:It'sveryhardforhimtostudytwolanguages.对他来说学两门外语是很难的。2)ofsb句型中的形容词一般为表示性格,品德,心智能力,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good,kind,nice,clever,foolish,right。例如:It'sveryniceofyoutohelpme.你来帮助我,你真是太好了。用for还是用of的另一种辨别方法:用介词for或of后面的逻辑主语作句子的主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果通顺用of,不通则用for。例如:Youarenice. (通顺,所以应用of)。Heishard.(非所表达的意思,不通,因此用for。)4.不定式作表语不定式可放在be动词后面,形成表语。例如:Myworkistocleantheroomeveryday.我的工作是每天清扫房间。Hisdreamistobeadoctor.他的梦想是成为一名医生。,5.不定式作定语不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后,往往表示未发生的动作。例如: Ihavealotofworktodo. 我有许多事要做。 Therewasnothingtobringhomethatmorning.那天早上(他回家时)两手空空。6.不定式作状语1)目的状语 常用结构为todo,onlytodo(仅仅为了),inordertodo, soastodo, so(such)…asto…(如此…以便…)。例如:Heransofastastocatchthefirstbus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。Icomehereonlytosaygood-byetoyou. 我来仅仅是向你告别。2)作结果状语,可以表示没有预料到的或事与愿违的结果,不定式要放在句子后面。Iawoketofindmytruckgone.我醒来发现箱子不见了。Hesearchedtheroomonlytofindnothing.他搜索了房间,没发现什么。3)表原因I'mgladtoseeyou.见到你很高兴。,Shewepttoseethesight.她一看到这情形就哭了。4)表示理由和条件Hemustbeafooltosayso.Youwilldowelltospeakmorecarefully.7.用作介词的toto可以用作介词,也可用作不定式的标示。下面的to都用作介词:admittoobjecttobeaccustomedtobeusedtosticktoturnto开始lookforwardtobedevotedtopayattentiontocontributetoapologizetodevoteoneselfto8.省去to的动词不定式1)情态动词(除ought外)后。2)使役动词let,have,make后,感官动词see,watch,lookat,notice,observe,hear,listento,smell,feel,find等后。注意:被动语态中不能省去to。例如:Isawhimdance.我看见他跳舞。=Hewasseentodance.Thebossmadethemworkthewholenight.,老板让他们整夜干活。=Theyweremadetoworkthewholenight.3)wouldrather,hadbetter句型后4)Why…/whyno…句型后5)help后可带to,也可不带to,helpsb(to)dosth:6)but和except后。but前是实义动词do时,后面出现的不定式不带to。比较:Hewantstodonothingbutgoout.他只想出去玩。Hewantstobelieveanythingbuttotakethemedicine.除了吃这药,他什么都信。7)由and,or和than连接的两个不定式,第二个to可以省去:8)通常在discover,imagine,suppose,think等词后作宾补时,可以省去tobe。例如:Heissupposed(tobe)nice. 他应该是个好人。9.动词不定式的否定式在不定式标志to前加上not。例如:Tellhimnottoshutthewindow。让他别关窗。ShepretendednottoseemewhenIpassedby.我走过的时候,她假装没看见。10.不定式的特殊句型too…to…,1)too…to太…以至于…。例如:Heistooexcitedtospeak.他太激动了,说不出话来。----CanIhelpyou?需要我帮忙吗?----Well,I'mafraidtheboxistooheavyforyoutocarryit,butthankyouallthesame. 不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢。2)如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定,too后那个词表达一种委婉含义,意为"不太"。例如:It'snevertoolatetomend.改过不嫌晚。(谚语) 3)当too前面有only,all,but时,意思是:非常…等于very。例如:I'monlytoopleasedtobeabletohelpyou.能帮助你我非常高兴。Hewasbuttooeagertogethome.他非常想回家。11.不定式的特殊句型soasto1)表示目的;它的否定式是soasnottodo。例如:Tomkeptquietabouttheaccidentsoasnottolosehisjob.汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。 Goinquietlysoasnottowakethebaby.轻点进去,别惊醒了婴儿。2) 表示结果。例如:Wouldyoubesokindastotellmethetime?,劳驾,现在几点了。12.不定式的特殊句型Whynot"Whynot+动词原形"表达向某人提出建议,翻译为:"为什么不……?""干吗不……?"。例如:Whynottakeaholiday?干吗不去度假?13.不定式的时态和语态1)一般式表示的动词,有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后,例如Heseemstoknowthis.他似乎知道这事。Ihopetoseeyouagain.=IhopethatI'llseeyouagain. 我希望再见到你。2)完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。例如:I'msorrytohavegivenyousomuchtrouble.很抱歉,给你添了那么多的麻烦。Heseemstohavecaughtacold.他好像已经得了感冒。3)进行式表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。例如:Heseemstobeeatingsomething.他好像正在吃什么东西。4)完成进行式表示动作从过去开始并延续至说话的时候。例如:,Sheisknowntohavebeenworkingontheproblemformanyyears.我们知道她研究这问题有好几年了。14.动名词与不定式1)动名词与不定式的区别:动名词表达的是:状态,性质,心境,抽象,经常性,已发生的不定式表达的是:目的,结果,原因,具体,一次性,将发生的2)有些动词如continue接不定式或动名词作宾语,意义基本相同。3)有些动词如continue接不定式或动名词作宾语,意义大相径庭。常见的,下一节有专门讨论分词一.概念:分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种,是一种非谓语动词形式二.相关知识点精讲:1.现在分词的用法:1)做表语:Hewasveryamusing.Thatbookwasratherboring.,很多动词的现在分词都可以作表语:exciting,interesting,encouraging,disappointing,confusing,touching,puzzling.2)作定语:上面所出现的现在分词都可以用作定语,修饰一个名词:Thatmusthavebeenaterrifyingexperience.Ifoundhimacharmingperson.现在分词短语还可以放在名词的后面修饰名词,相当于一个定语从句:Thereareafewboysswimmingintheriver.Thereisacarwaitingoutside.3)作状语:现在分词短语可以表示一个同时发生的次要的或伴随的动作:FollowingTom,westartedtoclimbthemountain.Openingthedrawer,hetookoutabox.Takingakeyoutofhispocket,heopenedthedoor.现在分词短语还可以表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句:Notknowingheraddress,wecouldn’tgetintouchwithher.Beingunemployed,hehasn’tgotmuchmoney.现在分词短语还可以表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句:,Hearingthenews,theyalljumpedwithjoy.Returninghome,hebegantodohishomework.Jimhurthisarmwhileplayingtennis.Becarefulwhencrossingtheroad.Havingfoundahotel,welookedforsomewheretohavedinner.Havingfinishedherwork,shewenthome.4)作宾补:现在分词在一些动词之后可以做宾语的补语:例如,see,hear,catch,find,keep,have等.Iseehimpassingmyhouseeveryday.Icaughthimstealingthingsinthatshop.Ismeltsomethingburning.Shekepthimworkingallday.2.过去分词的用法:1)作表语:Weweresoboredthatwecouldn’thelpyawning.Shefeltconfused,andevenfrightened.Theywereverypleasedwiththegirl.I’msatisfiedwithyouranswer.Heisnotinterestedinresearch.2)作定语:,Shehasapleasedlookonherface.Theteachergaveusasatisfiedsmile.cookedfoodawrittenreportfriedeggsboiledwaterfrozenfoodarmedforcesrequiredcoursesfallenleavesfinishedproductsaforcedsmiletherisensunnewarrivedvisitorsWhat’sthelanguagespokeninthatcountry?They’reproblemleftoverbyhistory.Theplayputonbytheteacherswasabigsuccess.Isthereanybodyinjured?Doyouknowthenumberofbooksordered?3)作状语:Seenfromthehill,thecitylooksmagnificent.Givengoodhealth,Ihopetofinishtheworkthisyear.Theycamein,followedbysomechildren.Depressed,hewenttoseehiseldersister.Whentreatedwithkindness,hewasveryamiable.4)作宾补:过去分词也同样可以作宾语的补语,接在某些动词后面,Iwillhavetheclotheswashedtomorrow.Whentheygetbackhome,theyfoundtheroomrobbed.三.巩固练习1.__________withthebeststudents,Istillhavealongwaytogo.A.HavingcomparedB.TocompareC.ComparedD.Compare()2.Themusicofthefilm_________byhimsoundsso___________.A.playing,excitingB.played,excitedC.playing,excitedD.played,exciting()3.__________againstthecominghurricane,theydarednotleavehome.A.WarnedB.HavingwarnedC.TowarnD.Warn()4.In__________countries,youcan’talwaysmakeyourself_______byspeakingEnglish.A.English-speaking,understandB.English-spoken,understandC.English-speaking,understoodD.English-speaking,understood()5.After_____________theoldman,thedoctor,suggestedthathe___________abadcold.A.examining,shouldcatchB.examined,hadcaughtC.examining,hadcaughtD.examined,catch()6._____________,Tomjumpedintotheriverandhadagoodtimeinit.A.BeagoodswimmerB.BeingagoodswimmerC.HavingbeengoodswimmerD.Tobeagoodswimmer()7.________howtoreadthenewwords,Ioftenlookthemupinthedictionary.A.HavingnotknownB.NottoknowC.Don’tknowD.Notknowing()8.Ashisparent,youshouldn’thaveyourchild___________suchabook.A.readB.toreadC.readingD.bereading()9.Hereturnedfromabroad______________thathismotherhadbeenbadlyill.A.heardB.havingbeenheardC.havingphonedD.havingbeenphoned四.答案:1.C2.D3.A4.C5.C6.B7.D8.C9.D,第九章动名词概念动名词由动词原形+ING构成,是一种非谓语动词形式相关知识点精讲:1.作主语。例如:FightingbrokeoutbetweentheSouthandtheNorth.南方与北方开战了。 2.作宾语 a.有些动词可以用动名词作宾语。例如:admit承认appreciate感激avoid避免complete完成consider认为delay耽误deny否认detest讨厌endure忍受enjoy喜欢escape逃脱fancy想象finish完成imagine想象mind介意miss想念postpone推迟practice训练recall回忆resent讨厌resume继续resist抵抗risk冒险suggest建议face面对include包括stand忍受understand理解forgive宽恕keep继续,例如:Wouldyoumindturningdownyourradioalittle,please?你把收音机音量调小一点,好吗Thesquirrelwasluckythatitjustmissedbeingcaught.这松鼠幸运得很,刚逃避了被逮住的厄运。b.有些结构后面可以用动名词作宾语或其它成分。例如:admittoprefer…tobeusedtoleadtodevoteoneselftoobjecttosticktonogoodnousebefondoflookforwardtobeproudofbebusycan'thelpbetiredofbecapableofbeafraidofthinkofburstoutkeeponinsistoncountonsetabout putoffbegoodattakeupgiveupbesuccessfulin 3.作表语,对主语说明、解释。例如:Herjobiswashing,cleaningandtakingcareofthechildren.她的工作是洗刷、清扫和照顾孩子。,比较:Sheiswashing,cleaningandtakingcareofthechildren.4.作定语,一般表示所修饰名词事物的用途。例如:awritingdesk=adeskforwriting写字台aswimmingpool=apoolswimming游泳池有些动名词作定语,与所修饰的名词关系比较复杂。例如:boilingpoint=atemperaturepointatwhichsomethingbeginstoboil沸点awalkingtractor=atractorwhichadrivercanoperatewhileheorsheiswalkingbehindit手扶拖拉机 三.巩固练习Iwas______worklastweek,butIchangedmymind.a.tostartb.tohavestartedc.tobestartingd.tohavebeenstartingIintended______thematterwithyou,butIhadsomeguestshen.a.discussb.discussingc.havingdiscussedd.tohavediscussedDon’tletmecatchyou______.a.dothatagainb.todothatagainc.doingthatagaind.donethatagain,Therearemanykindsofmetals______.eachhasitsspecialpropertiesb.onehasitsspecialpropertiesc.eachhavingitsspecialpropertiesd.havingitsspecialpropertiesIt’spay-day,andthey’rewaiting______.a.forpayingb.tobepaidc.tobepayingd.tohavepaid_______trouble,I’mgoingtoforgetthewholeaffair.a.Thenrathercauseb.Rathercausingc.Ratherthancaused.RatherthancausedThebrillianceofhissatireswas______makeevenhisvictimslaugh.a.soastob.suchastoc.sothatd.suchthatChildrenwithparentswhoseguidanceisfirm,consistent,andrationalareinclined______highlevelsofself-confidence.a.possessb.havepossessedc.topossessd.possessingTheworkeris______inrepairingthemachinetonoticemycoming.,a.toobusyb.enoughbusyc.busytood.busyenough“Whatdidyoudointhegarden?”“Iwatchedmyfather______hismotorbike.”a.torepairb.repairedc.repairingd.repairs四.答案BDCCBCBCAC第10章形容词和副词概念形容词是用来修饰,描述名词或代词的词,主要用作定语,表语和补足语等.副词是用来修饰动词,形容词,其化副词,介词短语或全句的词.二.相关知识点精讲1.形容词及其用法1)直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot。2)叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid害怕的。这类词还有:well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake等。3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后。例如:somethingnice.2.以-ly结尾的形容词1)大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。改错:(错)Shesanglovely.(错)Hespoketomeveryfriendly.(对)Hersingingwaslovely.(对)Hespoketomeinaveryfriendlyway.2)有些以-ly结尾既为形容词,也为副词,如daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early等。例如:TheTimesisaweeklypaper.《时代周刊》为周刊。TheTimesispublishedweekly.《时代周刊》每周发行一期。3.用形容词表示类别和整体1)某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接,如thedead,theliving,therich,thepoor,theblind,thehungry等。例如:Thepoorarelosinghope.穷人行将失去希望。,2)有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用,如theBritish,theEnglish,theFrench,theChinese等。例如:TheEnglishhavewonderfulsenseofhumor.英国人颇有幽默感。4.多个形容词修饰名词的顺序多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色)--出处--材料性质--类别--名词。例如:asmallroundtable/atallgraybuilding/adirtyoldbrownshirt/afamousGermanmedicalschool/anexpensiveJapanesesportscar2)Onedaytheycrossedthe____bridgebehindthepalace.A.oldChinesestone B.Chineseoldstone C.oldstoneChinese D.Chinesestoneold答案A.几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+国家+名词。3)----HowwasyourrecentvisittoQingdao?----Itwasgreat.Wevisitedsomefriends,andspentthe___daysattheseaside.A.fewlastsunnyB.lastfewsunnyC.lastsunny,fewD.fewsunnylast5.副词的位置1)在动词之前。2)在be动词、助动词之后。3)多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。注意:a.大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。例如: Wecouldseeveryclearlyastrangelightaheadofus.我们清楚地看到前面有奇怪的光。b.方式副词well,badly,hard等只放在句尾。例如: HespeaksEnglishwell.他英语说得好。6.副词的排列顺序:1)时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。2)方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用and或but等连词连接。例如:Pleasewriteslowlyandcarefully.请写得慢一些,仔细一些3)多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。注意:副词very可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。改错:(错) IverylikeEnglish. (对) IlikeEnglishverymuch.,注意:副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。例如: Idon'tknowhimwellenough.他我不熟悉。 Thereisenoughfoodforeveryonetoeat.有足够的食物供每个人吃。 Thereisfoodenoughforeveryonetoeat.7.兼有两种形式的副词1)close与closelyclose意思是"近";closely意思是"仔细地"。例如:Heissittingclosetome.他就坐在我边上。Watchhimclosely.盯着他。2)late与latelylate意思是"晚";lately意思是"最近"。例如:Youhavecometoolate.你来得太晚了。Whathaveyoubeendoinglately?近来好吗?3)deep与deeplydeep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"。例如:Hepushedthestickdeepintothemud.他把棍子深深插进泥里。Evenfatherwasdeeplymovedbythefilm.老爸也被电影深深打动了。,4)high与highlyhigh表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much。例如:Theplanewasflyinghigh.这架飞机飞得很高。Ithinkhighlyofyouropinion.你的看法很有道理。5)wide与widelywide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"。例如:Heopenedthedoorwide.他把门开得大大的。Englishiswidelyusedintheworld.英语在世界范围内广泛使用。6)free与freelyfree的意思是"免费";freely的意思是"无限制地"。例如:Youcaneatfreeinmyrestaurantwheneveryoulike.无论什么时候,我这饭铺免费对你开放。Youmayspeakfreely;saywhatyoulike.你可以畅所欲言,想说什么就说什么。8.形容词与副词的比较级 大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。1)规则变化,单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est来构成比较级和最高级。构成法原级比较级最高级一般单音节词未尾加-er,-esttalltallertallest以不发音的e结尾的单音词和少数以-le结尾的双音节词只加-r,-stnicenicernicest以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单音节词,双写结尾的辅音字母,再加-er,-estbigbiggerbiggest"以辅音字母+y"busybusierbusiest,结尾的双音节词,改y为i,再加-er,-est 少数以-er,-ow结尾的双音节词未尾加-er,-estclever/narrowcleverer/narrowercleverest/narrowest其它双音节词和多音节词,在前面加more,most来构成比较级和最高级important/easilymoreimportant/moreeasilymostimportant/mosteasily 2)不规则变化原级比较级最高级goodbetterbestwell(健康的)worseworstbadill(有病的)oldolder/elderoldest/eldestmuch/manymoremost,littlelessleastfarfarther/furtherfarthest/furthest9.as+形容词或副词原级+as1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so…as。例如: Hecannotrunso/asfastasyou.他没你跑得快。2)当as…as中间有名词时采用以下格式:as+形容词+a+单数名词/as+many/much+名词。例如:Thisisasgoodanexampleastheotheris.这个例子和另外一个一样好。Icancarryasmuchpaperasyoucan.你能搬多少纸,我也能。3)用表示倍数的词或其它程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。例如:Thisroomistwiceasbigasthatone.这房间的面积是那间的两倍。Yourroomisthesamesizeasmine. 你的房间和我的一样大。4)倍数+as+adj.+as <=>倍数+the…+of。例如:Thisbridgeisthreetimesaslongasthatone.这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。Thisbridgeisthreetimesthelengthofthatone.Yourroomistwiceaslargeasmine.,你的房间是我的两倍大。Yourroomistwicethesizeofmine.10.比较级形容词或副词+than。例如:YouaretallerthanI.你比我高。Theylightsinyourroomarebrighterthanthoseinmine.你房间的那些灯比我房间里的亮。注意:1)要避免重复使用比较级。(错)Heismoreclevererthanhisbrother.(对)Heismorecleverthanhisbrother.(对)Heiscleverthanhisbrother.2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。(错)ChinaislargerthananycountryinAsia.(对)ChinaislargerthananyothercountriesinAsia.3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。ThepopulationofShanghaiislargerthanthatofBeijing.Itiseasiertomakeaplanthantocarryitout.4)要注意定冠词在比较级中的使用。比较:Whichislarger,CanadaorAustralia? Whichisthelargercountry,CanadaorAustralia?, Sheistallerthanhertwosisters. Sheisthetallerofthetwosisters.11.可修饰比较级的词1)abit,alittle,rather,much,far,byfar,many,alot,lots,agreatdeal,any,still,even等。2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。3)以上词(除byfar)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。12.many,old和far1)如果后接名词时,muchmore+不可数名词,manymore+可数名词复数。 2)old有两种比较级和最高级形式:older/oldest和elder/eldest。elder,eldest只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。例如: Myelderbrotherisanengineer.我哥哥是个工程师。 Maryistheeldestofthethreesisters.玛丽是三姐妹中最大的。3)far有两种比较级,farther,further。一般father表示距离,further表示进一步。例如:Ihavenothingfurthertosay.我没什么要说了。13.the+最高级+比较范围1)形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词the,,副词最高级前可不用。例如:TheSaharaisthebiggestdesertintheworld.撒哈拉沙漠是世界上最大的沙漠。形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。例如:Itisamostimportantproblem.=Itisaveryimportantproblem.这是个很重要的问题。注意:使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。(错) Tomisthetallestofhisthreebrothers.(对) Tomisthetallestofthethreebrothers.2)下列词可修饰最高级,byfar,far,much,mostly,almost。例如: Thishatisnearly/almostthebiggest.这帽子差不多是最大的了。注意:a.very可修饰最高级,但位置与much不同。Thisistheverybest.Thisismuchthebest.b.序数词通常只修饰最高级。例如: Africaisthesecondlargestcontinent.非洲是第二大洲。3)最高级的意义有时可以用比较级表示出来。例如:,Mikeisthemostintelligentinhisclass.马克是班上最聪明的。Mikeismoreintelligentthananyotherstudentsinhisclass.4)"否定词语+比较级","否定词语+so…as"结构也可以表示最高级含义。例如:Nothingissoeasyasthis.没比这更简单的了。=Nothingiseasierthanthis.=Thisistheeasiestthing.14.和more有关的词组,1)themore…themore… 越……就越……。例如:Theharderyouwork,thegreaterprogressyou'llmake.越努力,进步越大。2)moreBthanA=lessAthanB与其说A不如说B。例如:Heismorelazythanslowathiswork.=Heislessslowthanlazyathiswork.他工作时,与其说是反应慢不如说是懒。3)nomore…than…与……一样……,不比……多。例如:TheofficialscouldseenomorethantheEmperor.官员们看到的和皇帝一样多。noless…than… 与……一样……。例如:,Heisnolessdiligentthanyou.他和你一样勤勉。4)morethan 不只是,非常。例如:Sheismorethankindtousall.她对我们非常热心。三.巩固练习Themodernmachineproved______inheartsurgery.a.highvaluableb.highlyvaluablec.valuablehighd.valuablehighlyMr.Johnsonandhis______daughterdonotalwaysunderstandeachother.a.olderb.theoldestc.eldestd.theeldestThey______thoughtthatthetruthwouldbefinallydiscovered.a.littleb.notc.smalld.bitTheyhardlybelievethattheapartmentwhichcoststhem$4,000is______.a.sosmallb.suchlittlec.solittled.suchsmallIfaclaimiskept______,itismorelikelytoberecognized.a.liveb.livedc.alived.livingOnhiswaytoschoolhemet______,sohesenthimtohospital.a.veryillmanb.muchsickmanc.seriousillman,d.verysickmanShewasoperatedamonthagobutnowshewas______.a.verygoodb.verywellc.healthyd.goodconditionedWhatIwoulddoistogo______.a.reallyquietlysomewhereb.somewherequietlyreallyc.reallyquietsomewhered.somewherereallyquietThechairmanasked______towritetheirquestionsonapieceofpaperandsendthemtothefront.a.thepresentmembersb.thememberspresentlyc.thememberspresentd.thepresentlymembers10.Thepricewasveryreasonable;Iwouldgladlyhavepaid______heasked.a.threetimesmuchasb.threetimesasmanyasc.asthreetimesmuchasd.threetimesasmuchas11.Thetrousersare______,butTomdoesnotcareabit.a.tooalittlesmallb.alittletoosmallc.atoolittlesmalld.asmalltoolittle12.Sheworeadresstothepartythatwasfarmoreattractivethan______.,a.othergirlsb.thatofothergirlsc.theothergirlsd.thoseofothergirls13.hecanplaytennisbetterthan______intheclass.a.anyboysb.anyotherboyc.anyboyd.anyother14.Kasiaistakingher______touroftheshopsinsearchofbargains.a.dailyb.dayc.daytimed.night15.______thechildexpresseshisinterestinanactivity,thestrongeritwillbecome.a.Themorefrequentb.Thefrequenterc.Themorefrequentlyd.thefrequentlier16.We’dbetterwait_______,PeterandTomwillcomeverysoon.a.alittlelongerb.morelongerc.longd.aslonger17.althoughthemedicinetastes______,itseemstohelpmycondition.a.badb.badlyc.toomuchbadd.toobadly18.Whenshegotherfirstmonthsalary,Dianaboughtherself______dress.a.acotton,blue…expensiveb.anexpensive…blue,cottonc.ablue,expensive…cottond.acotton,,expensive…blue19.Thedoctorshavetried______tosavethelifeofthewoundedsoldier.a.everythingpossiblehumanlyb.humanlyeverythingpossiblec.everythinghumanlypossibled.humanlypossibleeverything20.IwasworriedverymuchbecauseI’llmissmyflightifthebusarrives______.a.latelyb.latec.latterd.morelater四.答案BCAACDBDCDBDBACAACCB第11章代词一.概念:代词是代替名词的词,按其意义、特征及其在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、反身代词、相互代词、疑问代词、不定代词和关系代词等。二.相关知识点精讲1.人称代词 1)人称代词的人称、数和格,如下表所示。, 2)人称代词有主格和宾格之分。通常主格作主语,宾格作宾语。如:Iliketabletennis.(作主语)Doyouknowhim?(作宾语)3)人称代词还可作表语。作表语时用宾格。如:---Whosisknockingatthedoor?---It’sme.4)人称代词在than之后与其它人或事物进行比较时,用主格和宾格都可以。如:Heisolderthanme.HeisolderthanIam.2.物主代词 1)表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词,如下表所示。, 2)形容词性物主代词的作用相当于形容词,可在句中作定语。例如:Ourteacheriscomingtoseeus.Thisisherpencil-box. 3)名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词,在句中可用作主语、宾语和表语。Ourschoolishere,andtheirsisthere.(作主语)---IsthisEnglish-bookyours?(作表语)---No.Mineisinmybag.I'vealreadyfinishedmyhomework.Haveyoufinishedyours?(作宾语)3.指示代词指示代词包括:this,that,these,those。1)this和these一般用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物或人,that和those则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人,例如:Thisisapenandthatisapencil.,Wearebusythesedays.Inthosedaystheworkershadahardtime.2)有时that和those指前面讲到过的事物,this和these则是指下面将要讲到的事物,例如:Ihadacold.That'swhyIdidn'tcome.WhatIwanttosayisthis;pronunciationisveryimportantinlearningEnglish.3)有时为了避免重复提到的名词,常可用that或those代替,例如:TelevisionsetsmadeinBeijingarejustasgoodasthosemadeinShanghai.4)this在电话用语中代表自己,that则代表对方。例如:Hello!ThisisMary.IsthatJackspeaking?4.反身代词英语中用来表示"我自己","你自己","他自己","我们自己","你们自己"等意义的代词称为反身代词,也有人称之为自身代名词,其形式如表所示。,反身代词可以在句中作宾语,表语,同位语。1)作宾语,表示动作的承受者就是动作的发出者,主语和宾语指同一个人或一些人。Hecalledhimselfawriter.WouldyoupleaseexpressyourselfinEnglish? 2)作表语。Itdoesn'tmatter.I'llbemyselfsoon.Thegirlinthenewsismyself.3)作主语或宾语的同位语,表示亲自或本人。Imyselfwashedtheclothes.(=Iwashedtheclothesmyself.)(作主语同位语)Youshouldasktheteacherhimself.(作宾语同位语)5.不定代词不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词,在句中可作主语、表语、宾语和定语。现将几个常用的不定代词举例说明如下:1)some与any的区别①some,多用于肯定句,表示“一些,几个”作形容词时,后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词。Look!Someofthestudentsarecleaningthelibrary..Somericeinthebaghasbeensoldout.②any多用于疑问句、条件句和否定句中,表示“一些,任何”用作形容词时,后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词。Ifyouhaveanyquestions,pleaseaskme.Thereisn'tanyorangeinthebottle.Haveyougotanytea?③any和some也可以作代词用,表示“一些”。any多用于疑问句或否定句中,some多用于肯定句中。Howmanypeoplecanyouseeinthepicture?Ican'tseeany.Ifyouhavenomoney,I'lllendyousome.注意:与some,any结合的词如something,somebody,someone,anything,anyone,anybody在肯定句、否定句、疑问句、条件句中的用法,大致和some,any的用法相同。2)few,afew,little,alittle在用法上的区别①用作形容词:含义用法表示肯定表示否定用于可数名词afew虽少,但有几个few,不多,几乎没有用于不可数名词alittle,虽少,但有一点little不多,没有什么I'mgoingtobuyafewapples.HecanspeakonlyalittleChinese.Thereisonlyalittlemilkintheglass.Hehasfewfriends.Theyhadlittlemoneywiththem.②alittle和little也可以用作副词,alittle表示“有点,稍微”,little表示“很少”。I'malittlehungry.(修饰形容词hungry)Lethimsleepalittle.(修饰动词sleep)Mary,goalittlefaster,please.(修饰副词比较级)Shesleptverylittlelastnight.3)other,theother,another,others,theothers的区别。用法代名词形容词单数复数单数复数不定another另一个others别人,其它人another(boy)另一个(男孩)other(boys)其它男孩,特定theother另一个theothers其余那些人、物theother(boy)另一个男孩theother(boys)其余那些男孩①other可以作形容词用,后面可以跟单数或复数名词,意思是“其它的、别的”。Wherearehisotherbooks?Ihaven'tanyotherbooksexceptthisone.②other也可以用作代词,与冠词the连用构成“theother”,表示两个人或物中的“另一个”。常与one搭配构成“one...,theother...”句型。Hehastwobrothers.Oneis10yearsold,theotheris5yearsold.Sheheldarulerinonehandandanexercise-bookintheother.③other作代词用时,可以有复数“others”,泛指“另外的人或物”。常与some搭配构成“some....,others...”句型。Somewenttothecinema,otherswentswimming.Thiscoatistoolarge.Showmesomeothers,please.④“theothers”表示特指某范围内的“其它的人或物”。,Wegothomeby4o'clock,buttheothersdidn'tgetbackuntil8o'clock.InourclassonlyTomisEnglish,theothersareChinese.⑤another可以作形容词用,修饰后面的名词,意为“另一个”,还可以跟代词one.Youcanseeanothershipinthesea,can'tyou?Marydoesn'twanttobuythisskirt.Wouldyoupleaseshowheranotherone?⑥another也可以作代词用,表示“另一个”。I'mstillhungryafterI'vehadthiscake.Pleasegivemeanother.4)every与each的区别。eachevery1)可单独使用1)不可单独使用2)可做代名词、形容词2)仅作形容词3)着重“个别”3)着重“全体”,毫无例外4)用于两者或两者以上中的每一个人或物4)用于三者或三者以上每一个人或物,Theteachergaveatoytoeachchild.Eachballhasadifferentcolour.当我们说eachchild,eachstudent或eachteacher时,我们想到的是一个人的情况。而当我们说everychild和everystudent时,我们想到的是全体的情况,every的意思与all接近,表示他们都如此。EverystudentlovestheEnglishteacher.=AllstudentslovetheEnglishteacher.Everychildlikesplaying.=Allchildrenlikeplaying.5)all和both的用法。①all指三者以上,或不可数的东西。谓语动词既可以用单数,也可以用作复数。在句中作主语、表语、宾语、同位语和定语。AllofuslikeMrPope.我们都喜欢Pope先生。(作主语)=WealllikeMrPope.(作同位语)Allthewaterhasbeenusedup.(作主语)That'sallfortoday.(作表语)Whynoteatall(of)thefish?(作宾语)Alltheleadersarehere.(作定语)②both作代词。,a.与其它名词或代词并列出现,表示“两个都”。LucyandLilybothagreewithus.Theybothpassedontheirsticksatthesametime.Howareyourparents?They'rebothfine.b.与“of+代词(或名词)”连用,表示“两者都”。BothofthemcametoseeMary.Bothofthebooksareveryinteresting.c.单独使用,表示“两者(都)”。Michaelhastwosons.Bothareclever.Idon'tknowwhichbookisthebetter,Ishallreadboth.③both用作形容词,放在名词之前,修饰该名词,表示“两者都”。Bothhisyoungersistersareourclassmates..Therearetalltreesonbothsidesofthestreet.6.相互代词表示相互关系的代词叫做相互代词。相互代词有eachother和oneanother两种形式。在当代英语中,eachother和oneanother没有什么区别。相互代词可在句中作宾语,定语。作定语用时,相互代词用所有格形式。Weshouldlearnfromeachother/oneanother.(作宾语),Doyouoftenwritetoeachother/oneanother?(作宾语)Weoftenborroweachother's/oneanother'sbooks.(作定语)Thestudentscorrectedeachother's/oneanother'smistakesintheirhomework.(作定语)7.疑问代词疑问代词有who,whom,whose,what和which等。疑问代词用于特殊疑问句中,一般都放在句首,并在句子中作为某一句子成分。例如:Whoisgoingtocomeheretomorrow?(作主语)Whatisthat?(作表语)Whoseumbrellaisthis?(作定语)Whomareyouwaitingfor?(作宾语)8.关系代词关系代词是一种引导从句并起连接主句和从句作用的代词。关系代词有who,whose,whom,that,which.它们在句中可用作主语,表语,宾语,定语.在主句中,它们还代表着从句所修饰的那个名词或代词。例如:Ihatepeoplewhotalkmuchbutdolittle.,I’mlookingatthephotographwhichyousentmewithyourletter.Withthemoneythathehadsaved,hewentonwithhisstudies.Doyouknowtheladywhoisinterviewingourheadmaster?三.巩固练习1.Tom,Pleasepass________theglasses.Iwanttoreadthenewspapers.A.youB.meC.himD.her2.TheEnglishnovelisquiteeasyforyou.Thereare______newwordsinit.A.alittleB.littleC.afewD.few3.---Youwant________sandwich?---Yes,IusuallyeatalotwhenI’mhungry.A.otherB.anotherC.othersD.theother4.ThedoctorsandnursesaredoingtheirbesttofightSARS.Theythinkmoreofothersthan_______.A.theyB.themC.themselvesD.theirs5.---Whichdoyouprefer,abottleoforangeorabottleofmilk?---______________,thanks.I’dlikeacupoftea.,A.EitherB.NeitherC.BothD.None6.---Oh!Icameinahurryandforgottobringfood.---Nevermind.Youcanhave________.A.usB.oursC.youD.yours7.---CanIcomethiseveningortomorrowmorning?---_______isOK.I’mfreetodayandtomorrow.A.EitherB.NeitherC.BothD.None8.---Howareyougoingtoimprove_______thisterm?---Workharderthanlastterm.A.ourselvesB.myselfC.himselfD.yourself9.---Couldyoutellme_______sheislookingfor?---Hercousin,Susan.A.thatB.whoseC.whoD.which10.---Is_______here?---No.LiLeiandHanMeihaveaskedforleave.A.everybodyB.somebodyC.anybodyD.nobody11.Paulhas_______friendsexceptme,andsometimeshefeelslonely.A.manyB.someC.fewD.more12.Ifyouwanttobookaround-tripticket,you’llhavetopay______$30.A.moreB.otherC.theotherD.another,13.---Doyoulivebyyourself,MrWang?---Yes.Ihavetwosons.But______ofthemliveswithme.TheyarenowstudyinginAmerica?A.neitherB.bothC.noneD.either14.---HaveyousentyourparentsanE-mailtellingthemyouarrivedsafe?---No._______ofthemcanuseacomputer.A.NoneB.BothC.NeitherD.All15.Whotaught_______Englishlastterm?Was_____Mr.Smith?A.you;itB.you;heC.your;itD.your;that16.---Thatwomanhasabaginherrighthand.What’sinher_____hand?A.anotherB.otherC.oneD.theother17.Wedecidedtogoforafieldtripwithsomefriendsof_______.A.usB.ourC.oursD.ourselves18.---Isthereabustothezoo?---I’mafraidthere’s_______bustothezoo.A.noB.anyC.someD.none19.Youforgotyourdictionary?Youmayhave_______.A.meB.myC.mineD.myself,20.Thisis______classroom.Whereis_______?our;themB.us;theyC.our;theirsD.ours;theirs四.答案1.B2.D3.B4.C5.B6.B7.A8.D9.C10.A11.C12.D13.A14.C15.A16.B17.C18.A19.C20.C第12章名词一.概念名词是表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称的词,有专有名词和普通名词之分,还有可数名词与不可数名词之分.二.相关知识点精讲1.名词复数的规则变化情况构成方法读音例词一般情况加-s清辅音后读/s/map-maps浊辅音和元音后读/z/bag-bags/car-cars以s,sh,ch,x等结尾加-es读/iz/bus-buses/watch-watches以ce,se,ze,等结尾加-s读/iz/license-licenses,以辅音字母+y结尾变y为i再加es读/z/baby---babies 2.其它名词复数的规则变化1)以y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数。例如:  twoMarys theHenrys monkey---monkeysholiday---holidays2)以o结尾的名词,变复数时:a.加s,如:photo---photospiano---pianos radio---radioszoo---zoos;b.加es,如:potato--potatoestomato--tomatoesc.上述a和b两种方法均可,如zero---zeros/zeroes。3)以f或fe结尾的名词变复数时:a.加s,如:belief---beliefsroof---roofs safe---safesgulf---gulfs;b.去f,fe加ves,如:half---halvesknife---knives leaf---leaveswolf---wolveswife---wiveslife---livesthief---thieves;c.上述a和b两种方法均可,如handkerchief:handkerchiefs/handkerchieves。3.名词复数的不规则变化1)child---childrenfoot---feettooth---teeth,mouse---miceman---menwoman---women注意:由一个词加man或woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是-men和-women,如anEnglishman,twoEnglishmen。但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是theBowmans。2)单复同形,如deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese,li,jin,yuan,twoli,threemu,fourjin等。但除人民币的元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:adollar,twodollars;ameter,twometers。3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。例如:people police cattle等本身就是复数,不能说apeople,apolice,acattle,但可以说aperson,apoliceman,aheadofcattle,theEnglish,theBritish,theFrench,theChinese,theJapanese,theSwiss等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用,如TheChineseareindustriesandbrave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。4)以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:a.maths,politics,physics等学科名词,一般是不可数名词,为单数。b.news为不可数名词。c.theUnitedStates,theUnitedNations应视为单数。, TheUnitedNationswasorganizedin1945.联合国是1945年组建起来的。d.以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。例如:"TheArabianNights"isaveryinterestingstory-book.《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书。5)表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses(眼镜) trousers, clothes等,若表达具体数目,要借助数量词pair(对,双); suit(套);apairofglasses;twopairsoftrousers等。6)另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼。 4.不可数名词量的表示1)物质名词a.当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数。比较:Cakeisakindoffood. 蛋糕是一种食物。(不可数)Thesecakesaresweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。(可数)b.当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,可数。例如:Thisfactoryproducessteel. (不可数)Weneedvarioussteels. (可数)c.当物质名词表示份数时,可数。例如:,Ourcountryisfamousfortea.我国因茶叶而闻名。Twoteas,please.请来两杯茶。2)抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数。例如:fourfreedoms四大自由thefourmodernizations四个现代化物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量,如aglassofwater一杯水/apieceofadvice 一则建议。5.定语名词的复数名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。用复数作定语。例如:sportsmeeting运动会studentsreading-room学生阅览室talkstable谈判桌theforeignlanguagesdepartment外语系2)man,woman,gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例如:menworkerswomenteachersgentlemenofficials3)有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。例如:goodstrain(货车)armsproduce 武器生产 customspapers海关文件clothesbrush衣刷 4)数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如:,two-dozeneggs 两打鸡蛋aten-milewalk十英里路two-hundredtrees两百棵树afive-yearplan. 一个五年计划6.不同国籍人的单复数国籍总称(谓语用复数)单数复数中国人theChineseaChinesetwoChinese瑞士人theSwissaSwisstwoSwiss澳大利亚人theAustraliansanAustraliantwoAustralians俄国人theRussiansaRussiantwoRussians意大利人theItaliansanItaliantwoItalians希腊人theGreekaGreektwoGreeks法国人theFrenchaFrenchmantwoFrenchmen日本人theJapaneseaJapanesetwoJapanese美国人theAmericansanAmericantwoAmericans印度人theIndiansanIndiantwoIndians加拿大人theCanadiansaCanadiantwoCanadians德国人theGermansaGermanstwoGermans,英国人theEnglishanEnglishmantwoEnglishmen瑞典人theSwedishaSwedetwoSwedes7.名词的格英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:ateacher'sbook。名词所有格的规则如下:1)单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如theboy'sbag男孩的书包,men'sroom男厕所。2)若名词已有复数词尾-s,只加"'",如:theworkers'struggle 工人的斗争。3)凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of+名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:thetitleofthesong歌的名字。4)在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如:thebarber's理发店。5)如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。例如:John'sandMary'srooms(两间)JohnandMary'sroom(一间)6)复合名词或短语,'s加在最后一个词的词尾。例如:amonthortwo'sabsence三.巩固练习,1.Hewaseagertomakesomeextramoney,sinceduringtheseyearshecouldhardlyliveonhis_______.a.littlewageb.fewwagec.waged.wages2.Mostofthehousesinthevillagewereburntto______duringthewar.a.anashb.theashc.ashd.ashes3.Thestudentsatcollegesoruniversitiesaremaking______forthecomingNewYear.a.manypreparationsb.muchpreparationc.preparationsd.preparation4.Paitingin_____isoneoftheirspare-timeactivities.a.oilb.anoilc.oilsd.theoil5.Intheviewoftheforeignexperts,therewasn’t____oilhere.a.muchb.lotsofc.agreatdealofd.many6.Thelargehousesarebeingpainted,but______.a.ofgreatexpenseb.atagreatexpensec.inalotofexpensesd.byhighexpense7.Theroomwassmallandcontainedfartoo______.a.muchnewfurniturec.muchnewfurnituresb.manynewfurnitured.manynewfurnitures,8.Jimwaslatefortwoclassesthismorning.Hesaidthatheforgotbothofthe______.a.roomsnumberb.roomnumberc.room’snumbersd.roomnumbers9.Computerscando______workinashorttime,butamancannotdo______byhimself.agreatmany…manyc.much…agreatdealb.greatdealof…muchd.many…agreatmany10.Shedidn’tknow_____hehadbeengiven.a.howmanyinformationc.howmanyinformationsb.thenumberofinformationd.howmuchinformation11.Heinvitedallofhis______tojoinhisweddingparty.a.comrade-in-armsc.comrades-in-armb.comrades-in-armsd.comrade-in-arm12.Allthe______inthehospitalgotariselastmonth.a.womendoctorsc.womandoctorsb.womendoctord.womandoctor13.Aftertenyears,alltheseyoungstersbecame_____.a.growns-upsc.growns-upb.grown-upd.grown-ups,14.Thepoliceinvestigatedthose_____abouttheaccident.a.stander-byc.standers-byb.stander-bysd.standers-bys15.TheNazikeptthose______intheirconcentrationcamp.a.prisoner-of-warsc.prisoners-of-warb.prisoners-of-warsd.prisoner-of-war16.Themanagerwasgreatlyappreciatethat_____madebyLindalately.a.newreelb.newsreelc.new-reelsd.newsreels17.Mary’sdressissimilarinappearancetoher______.a.eldersisterb.eldersister’sc.eldersistersd.eldersistersdress18.Allthepeopleattheconferenceare______.a.mathematicteachersc.mathematicsteacherb.mathematicsteachersd.mathematic’steachers19.ProfessorMackaytoldusthat______ofleadareitssoftnessanditsresistance.a.somepropertyc.propertiesb.somepropertiesd.property,20.Physics_____withmatterandmotion.a.dealb.dealsc.dealingd.are四.答案DDCCACADCDCADBBBBCCB第13章数词一.概念:数词分两类:基数词和序数词.表示数目的词叫基数词,表示须序的词叫序数词.二.相关知识点精讲1.基数词1)基数词一般可写成如345或threehundredandforty-five。2)基数词一般是单数形式,但遇下列情况,常用复数:a.与of短语连用,表示概数,不能与具体数目连用,如scoresofpeople指许多人;b.在一些表示"一排"或"一组"的词组里。例如:Theyarrivedintwosandthrees. 他们三三两两的到了。c.表示"几十岁"。d.表示"年代",用in+the+数词复数。e.在乘法运算的一种表示法里,如Threefivesis(are)fifteen。,2.序数词序数词的缩写形式如first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st等。 3.数词的用法1)倍数表示法a.主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+as+adj.+as。例如Ihavethreetimesasmanyasyou. 我有你三倍那么多。b.主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+thesize(amount,length…)of…。例如:Theearthis49timesthesizeofthemoon. 地球是月球的49倍。c.主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+形容词(副词)比较级+than…。例如:Thegrainoutputis8percenthigherthisyearthanthatoflastyear.今年比去年粮食产量增加8%。d.还可以用by+倍数,表示增加多少倍。例如:Theproductionofgrainhasbeenincreasedbyfourtimesthisyear.今年粮食产量增加了4倍。2)分数表示法的构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母。分子大于1时,分子的序数词用单数,分母序数词用复数。例如:,1/3one-third;3/37threeandthree-sevenths.三.巩固练习1.______martyrshaveheroicallylaiddowntheirlivesforthepeople.a.Thousanduponthousandofb.Thousandandthousandsofc.Thousandsuponthousandsofd.Thousandandthousandof2.Theyreceived______oflettersabouttheirTVprograms.a.dozenb.dozenanddozencscored.dozens3.Whoisthatman,______inthefrontrow?a.oneb.theonec.firstd.thefirst4.Wehaveproduced______thisyearaswedidin1993.a.asmuchcottontwiceb.astwicemuchcottonc.muchastwicecottond.twiceasmuchcotton5.Theearthisabout______asthemoon.a.asfiftytimebigb.fiftytimesasbigc.asbigfiftytimed.fiftyastimesbig6.ThepopulationofmanyAlaskancitieshas______inthepastthreeyears.a.morethandoubledb.moredoubledthanc.much,thandoubledd.muchdoubledthan7.Themoonisabout_____indiameterasdiameterastheearth.a.one-threeaslargeb.onethreeaslargec.one-thirdaslarged.onethirdaslarge8.Fivehundredyuanamonth_____enoughtoliveon.a.isb.arec.isbeingd.hasbeen9.______ofthebuildingswereruined.a.Threefourthb.Threefourc.Three-fourthsd.Three-four10.Consult_____forquestionsaboutearthquakes.a.thesixindexb.indexsixc.sixthindexd.indexnumberingsix四.答案CDDDBACACB第14章冠词一.概念冠词是一个虚词,它置于名词之前,限定名词的意义.冠词可分为定冠词,不定冠词和零冠词三类.二.相关知识点精讲1.a用于辅音发音开头的词前,如:abook;an,用于元音发音开头的词前,如:anapple,anhour.请区别:ausefulmachine,anumbrella,a“u”,an“h”。2.指上文提到过的人或物,用定冠词the。3.在世界上独一无二的事物前用定冠词the.如:thesun,themoon,theearth。4.the用于序数词,表方位的名词和形容词最高级前。thefirst,thebest,inthesouth。5.在复数姓氏前加the,表示××一家人,常看成复数。如:theBrowns。6.在介词短语中常用定冠词the,如:inthebox,behindthechair。7.不能用定冠词the的几个方面:(1)在节日、星期、月份、季节、年等词前不用冠词。如:insummer,inAugust请区别:inthespringof1945.(这里表示特指,故加the)(2)一日三餐和球类运动名不用冠词。如:havebreakfast,playfootball(3)一些固定词组中,如:gotobed,gotoschool,bybus,atnight.8.在有些词组中,有冠词和无冠词意思不同,请注意区别:infrontof在…前面,inthefrontof在…范围内的前部inhospital(生病)住院,inthehospital在医院里。,三.巩固练习1.WhenLindawasachild,hermotheralwaysletherhave______bed.a.thebreakfastinb.thebreakfastinthec.breakfastind.breakfastinthe2.Hehaspromisedtogiveup______hundredsoftimes.a.tobaccob.tobaccoc.thetobaccod.tobaccos3.______usuallygotochurcheverySunday.a.TheBrownb.ABrownc.Brownsd.TheBrowns4.Thetrainisrunningfiftymiles______.a.anhourb.onehourc.thehourd.ahour5.Hecanplayalmosteverykindofmusicinstrumentbutheisgood______.a.atthefluteb.atflutec.atafluted.atthatflute6.Theinvestigatorsfoundthatmoreshouldbedonefor______inIndia.a.thosepoorb.apoorc.poord.thepoor7.Youlookinhighspirit.Youmusthave______duringyourholiday.a.wonderfultimeb.awonderfultimec.the,wonderfultimed.somewonderfultime8.Thecityassignedapolicemantotheschoolcrossingbecause______traffictherewassoheavy.a.ab.anc.thed.one9.Anewteacherwassenttothevillageinplaceof______onewhohadretired.a.ab.thec.and.its10.Virtueandvicearebeforeyou;______leadsyoutohappiness,______tomisery.a.theformer…latterb.aformer…alatterc.theformer…thelatterd.former…latter四.答案CBDAADBCBC第15章介词一.概念:介词表示它后面的名词或相当于名词的其它结构与句中其它成分的关系.二.相关知识点精讲1.表示地点位置的介词1)at,in,on,toat(1)表示在小地方;(2)表示“在……附近,旁边”,in(1)表示在大地方;(2)表示“在…范围之内”。on表示毗邻,接壤to表示在……范围外,不强调是否接壤Hearrivedatthestationatten.Heissittingatthedesk.HearrivedinShanghaiyesterday.JiangsuliesintheeastofChina.RussialiesonthenorthofChina.FujianistothesouthofJiangsuProvince.2)above,over,on在……上above指在……上方,不强调是否垂直,与below相对;over指垂直的上方,与under相对,但over与物体有一定的空间,不直接接触。on表示某物体上面并与之接触。Thebirdisflyingabovemyhead.Thereisabridgeovertheriver.Heputhiswatchonthedesk.3)below,under在……下面under表示在…正下方below表示在……下,不一定在正下方Thereisacatunderthetable.Pleasewriteyournamebelowtheline.,2.表示时间的介词1)in,on,at在……时in表示较长时间,如世纪、朝代、时代、年、季节、月及一般(非特指)的早、中、晚等。如inthe20thcentury,inthe1950s,in1989,insummer,inJanuary,inthemorning,inthenight,inone’slife,inone’sthirties等。on表示具体某一天及其早、中、晚。如onMay1st,onMonday,onNewYear’sDay,onacoldnightinJanuary,onafinemorning,onSundayafternoon等。at表示某一时刻或较短暂的时间,或泛指圣诞节,复活节等。如at3:20,atthistimeofyear,atthebeginningof,attheendof…,attheageof…,atChristmas,atnight,atnoon,atthismoment等。注意:在last,next,this,that,some,every等词之前一律不用介词。如:Wemeeteveryday.2)in,after在……之后“in+段时间”表示将来的一段时间以后;“after+段时间”表示过去的一段时间以后;“after+将来点时间”表示将来的某一时刻以后。Mymotherwillcomebackinthreeorfourdays.,Hearrivedafterfivemonths.Shewillappearafterfiveo’clockthisafternoon.3)from,since自从……from仅说明什么时候开始,不说明某动作或情况持续多久;since表示某动作或情况持续至说话时刻,通常与完成时连用。Hestudiedthepianofromtheageofthree.Theyhavelivedheresince1978.4)after,behind在……之后after主要用于表示时间;behind主要用于表示位置。Weshallleaveafterlunch.Lucyishidingbehindanoldhouse.3.表运动方向的介词:across,through通过,穿过across表示横过,即从物体表面通过,与on有关;through穿过,即从物体内部穿过,与in有关。Sheswamacrosstheriver.Hewalkedthroughtheforest.4.表示“在……之间”的介词:between,amongbetween指在两个人或两个事物之间;among指在三个或三个以上的人或事物之间。ThereisafootballmatchbetweenClassOneandClass,Twoontheplayground.Theteacherisstandingamongthestudents.5.表示其它意义的介词1)on,about关于on 表示这本书,这篇文章或演说是严肃的,或学术性的,可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读;about表示内容较为普通,不那么正式。Therewillbealectureoneconomicsthisafternoon.Heiswritingabookoncooking.Hetoldmealotabouthislifeinthesummervocation.2)by,with,in表示方法、手段、工具by以……方法、手段或泛指某种交通工具;with表示用…工具、手段,一般接具体的工具和手段;in表示用…方式,用…语言(语调、笔墨、颜色)等;Hemakesalivingbysellingnewspapers.Hebrokethewindowwithastone.TheforeignerspoketousinEnglish.3)except,besides除了except除……之外,不包括在内;besides除……之外,包括在内。ExceptMr.Wang,wewenttoseethefilm.(王先生没去),BesidesMr.Wang,wealsowenttoseethefilm.(王先生也去了)三.巩固练习Taiwanis________thesoutheastofChina.(in,on,to)Go_________thebridge_________theriver,you’llfindtheshop.(across,through;over,above)Igotoschool__________7:30everymorning.(in,on,at)Hewouldliketomeether__________8:00and9:00tomorrowmorning.(between,among)TheGreenshavelivedinChina________threeyears.(in,for,after)Wegotoschooleveryday________SaturdayandSunday.(except,besides)Hewrotetheletter_________ink.(by,with,in)Shereturnedtohercountry_________fiveyears.(in,after,for)Thereisabigtree_________ourclassroom.(after,behind)Iusuallygotowork_________bike.(by,on,with)四.答案,1.in2.across,over3.at,4.between5.for6.except7.in8.after9.behind10.by第16章连词一.概念连词是用来连接词,短语,从句或句子的词.连词不作成分.二.相关知识点精讲1.表示并列关系的连词有:and,both…and…,notonly…butalso…和neither…nor…等1)and:和,并且A:基本用法:“and”表示“和”、“并且”的意思,用来连接对等关系的字和字,片语和片语,句子和句子。Ienjoybasketball,footballandtabletennis.Theweatherbecomescolderandcolder.B:特别用法:祁使句后连接and,有条件句作用,此时and=ifyou…,you’ll…Gostraighton,andyou’llseethelibrary.==Ifyougostraighton,youwillseethelibrary.2)both…and…既…也…,(两者)都…A、both…and…构成的词组作主语时,谓语动词用复数。,BothJimandKatearefromEngland.B、both…and…否定句表示部分否定。Youcan’tspeakbothGermanandEnglish.Bothmyfatherandmymotheraren’tdoctors.3)neither…nor…:既不…也不…neither…nor…连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词靠近哪个主语就与哪个主语保持“人称”和“数”的一致,即采取就近原则。NeitherInorhehasseentheplaybefore.4)notonly…butalso…:不但…而且…notonly…butalso…连接两个主语后的谓语动词也遵循就近原则。Notonlythemotherbutalsothechildrenareill.2.表示转折关系的连词有:but,however,yet,still,while等。Marywasanicegirl,butshehadoneshortcoming.Tomgotupearly,yethefailedtocatchthetrain.Hewasverytired,stillhekeptonwalking.Yourcompositionisfairlygood,however,thereisstillsomeroomforimprovement.Janeishardworking,whilehersisterisquitelazy.,3.表示选择关系的并列连词有:or,either…or…,whether…or…等。1)or:或、否则A:基本用法or表示“或”的意思,使用于两者之中选择一个的时候。----IsyourfriendEnglishorAmerican?----American.Hedoesn’tlikedumplingsornoodles.B:特别用法祁使句后连接or,表“如果…,否则…”,有转折的意思,此时or=ifyoudon’t…,you’ll…Hurryup,oryou’llbelate.=Ifyoudon’thurryup,you’llbelate.2)either…or…:或者…或者…;不是…就是…;要么…要么…either…or…连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词靠近哪个主语就与哪个主语保持“人称”和“数”的一致,即就近原则。EitheryouorIamright.DoeseithersheortheylikeEnglish?由either…or…引导的否定句是完全否定。Sheisn’teitherastudentorateacher.3)whether…or…不管…还是…Sheisalwayscheerful,whetherathomeoratschool.,4.表示因果关系的并列连词有:for(因为),so(所以)。Heisnotatschooltoday,forhehasabadcold.Itwaslate,soIwenthome.5.引导时间状语从句的从属连词有:before,after,when,while,as,till,until,since,assoonas等。Aftertheyhadplantedtheircrops,theytookarest.Wehavelearnedsixlessonssincehebegantoteachus.AssoonashegetstoBeijing,he’llcallme.1)when,while,as都表示“当……时”,when从句谓语动词既可以是瞬间动词也可以是延续性动词,可用于主从句动作同时发生或从句动作先于主句动作发生。while从句谓语动词只能是延续性动词,侧重主从句动作同时发生。as引导一个持续性动作,多用于主从句动作同时发生,强调“一边……一边”。WhenIcamein,myfatherwascooking.Icameinwhen/whilemyfatherwascooking.Hesangashewalked.2)until用法:当主句谓语动词是延续性动词时,主从句都用肯定式,译为“直到……为止”;当主句谓语动词是瞬间动词时,主句用否定式,从句用肯定式,即not…..until,译为“直到……才”。,Mr.Greenwaiteduntilhischildrencameback.(格林先生一直等到他的孩子们回来)Mr.Greendidn’tgotobeduntilhischildrencameback.(格林先生直到他的孩子们回来才睡觉)6.引导条件状语从句的从属连词有:if(如果),unless(除非,如果……不)等。Ifyoudon’tgosoon,you’llbelate.=Unlessyougosoon,you’llbelate.7.引导原因状语从句的从属连词有because,as,since等。because“因为”语气最强,回答why提问时只能用because,其引导的从句可放在句首或句末;as“由于”、since“既然”语气不如because强,引导的从句常置于句首;for是并列连词,语气最弱,对前面分句加以解释或补充说明,其引导的分句常置于句末且用逗号隔开。Hedidn’tgotoschoolbecausehewasill.Asitwasraining,wewenttherebybus.Sinceeverybodyishere,let’sbegin.Itmusthaverainedlastnight,forthegroundiswet.注意:because与so不能同时使用。8.引导让步状语从句的从属连词有:although/though(虽然,尽管),eventhough/if(即使),Although/Thoughitisaveryyoungcountry,itisveryrich.Evenif/thoughyouwerehereyesterday,youcouldn’thelphim.注意:although/though引导的从句不能与but连用,但可与yet,still连用。9.引导目的状语从句的从属连词有sothat和inorderthat(以便,为了)等。Theteacherspokeloudlysothat/inorderthatwecouldhearhimclearly.10.引导结果状语从句的从属连词有:sothat(结果是)和so/such…that…(如此…以至于)等。Itwasverycold,sothatthewaterinthebowlfroze.Hegottheresoearlythathegotagoodseat.Itissuchaheavyboxthatnobodycanmoveit.11.引导比较状语从句的从属连词有:as…as…(与……一样),notas/so…as…(不及,赶不上),和than(比)等。Iknowyoubetterthanshedoes.Heworksascarefullyasshe.Ican’trunas/sofastasyou.12.引导名词性从句的从属连词有:that和if/whether(是否)等。,Weknowthattheearthgoesaroundthesun.(宾语从句)Iwonderifhehasreceivedmye-mail.(宾语从句)Whetherhe’llgotherehasn’tbeendecided.(主语从句)注意:在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,如果主句是将来时,从句要用一般现在时。I’llgoonwiththeworkwhenIcomebacktomorrow.Hewon’tcomeunlessheisinvited.三.巩固练习1、Idon’tlikereadingwatchingTV.Whataboutyou?“Idon’tlikereadingallday,IlikewatchingTVplays.”A.and,butB.and,andC.or,andD.or,but2、Youwon’tknowthevalue(价值)ofthehealthyouloseit.A.untilB.afterC.whenD.because3、WeboughtGrannyapresent,shedidn’tlikeit.A.butB.andC.orD.so4、Studyhard,youwillpasstheexam.A.soB.forC.but,D.and5、Putonmoreclothes,you’llcatchcold.A.andB.forC.orD.but6、Myshoesarewornout,Ineednewones.A.soB.ifC.becauseD.and7、Heranfasthewontherace.A.enough…toB.so…thatC.too…toD.both…and8、Heisonlytenmonths.Hecanreadwrite.A.either…orB.neither…norC.both…andD.so…that9、ShesaidshemightcomeSaturdaySunday.A.neither…norB.nither…orC.too…toD.so…that10、IfTomMikeasksfortheircar,tellhimtocometomorrow.A.orB.andC.withD.but11、Itwasalreadyteno’clockwegottothemuseumthismorning.A.thatB.whenC.ifD.for12、It’salongtimewemetlast.A.soB.afterC.since,D.before13、Thatmathsproblemisdifficultnobodycandoit.A.too…toB.very…thatC.so…thatD.very…but14、I’llgiveherthemessageshecomesback.A.sinceB.beforeC.untilD.assoonas15、theteachercameintotheclassroom,manystudentsweretalkingtoeachother.A.WhileB.IfC.SinceD.When16、Peopleoftenmistakeusforeachotherwearetwins.A.ifB.whenC.becauseD.after17、Couldyoutellmeinyourhometowninwinter?A.ifitoftensnowedB.whetherdoesitoftensnowC.ifitoftensnowD.whetheritoftensnows18、AreyousureMr.Liwillcometoyourbirthdayparty?A.ifB.thatC.forD.when19、LilyLucylikesinging.,A.Either…orB.Beither…nor…C.Both…andD.So…that20、Readthesentencesslowlywecanunderstandwhatyouread.A.sothatB.beforeC.untilD.because四.答案 1、D2、A3、A4、D5、C6、A7、B8、B9、B10、A11、B12、C13、C14、D15、D16、C17、D18、B19、C20、A第17章构词法一.概念英语的构词法主要有:合成法,转化法,派生法,混成法,截短法和词首字母缩略法.二.相关知识点精讲1.转化法英语中,有的名词可作动词,有的形容词可作副词或动词,这种把一种词性用作另一种词性而词形不变的方法叫作转化法。1)动词转化为名词,很多动词可以转化为名词,大多意思没有多大的变化(如下①);有时意思有一定变化(如下②);有的与一个动词和不定冠词构成短语,表示一个动作(如下③)。例如:①Let'sgooutforawalk.我们到外面去散散步吧。②Heisamanofstrongbuild.他是一个体格健壮的汉子。③Let'shaveaswim.咱们游泳吧。2)名词转化为动词很多表示对象(如下①)、身体部位(如下②)、某类人(如下③)的名词可以用作动词来表示动作,某些抽象名词(如下④)也可作动词。例如:①Didyoubookaseatontheplane?你订好飞机座位了吗?②Pleasehandmethebook.请把那本书递给我。③Shenursedherhusbandbacktohealth.她看护丈夫,使他恢复了健康。④Welunchedtogether.我们在一起吃了午餐。3)形容词转化为动词有少数形容词可以转化为动词。例如:Wewilltryourbesttobetterourlivingconditions.我们要尽力改善我们的生活状况。4)副词转化为动词,有少数副词可以转化为动词。例如:Murderwillout.(谚语)恶事终必将败露。5)形容词转化为名词表示颜色的形容词常可转化为名词(如下①);某些形容词如old,young,poor,rich,wounded,injured等与the连用,表示一类人,作主语时,谓语用复数(如下②)。例如:Youshouldbedressedinblackatthefuneral.你在葬礼中该穿黑色衣服。Theoldinourvillagearelivingahappylife.我们村的老年人过着幸福的生活。2.派生法在词根前面加前缀或在词根后面加后缀构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词叫作派生法。1)前缀除少数前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,不改变词性;后缀一般改变词类,而不引起词义的变化。(1)表示否定意义的前缀常用的有dis-,il-,im-,in-,ir-,mis-,non-,un-等,在单词的前面加这类前缀常构成与该词意义相反的新词。例如:appear出现→disappear消失correct正确的→incorrect不正确的,lead带领→mislead领错stop停下→non-stop不停(2)表示其它意义的前缀常用的有a-(多构成表语形容词),anti-(反对;抵抗),auto-(自动),co-(共同),en-(使),inter-(互相),re-(再;又),sub-(下面的;次;小),tele-(强调距离)等。例如:alone单独的antigas防毒气的autochart自动图表cooperate合作enjoy使高兴internet互联网reuse再用subway地铁telephone电话2)后缀英语单词不仅可以通过加前缀构成新词,也可加后缀构成新词。后缀通常会改变单词的词性,构成意义相近的其它词性;少数后缀还会改变词义,变为与原来词义相反的新词。(1)构成名词的后缀常用的有-ence,-(e)r/-or(从事某事的人),-ese(某地人),-ess(雌性),-ful(一……),-ian(精通……的人),-ist(专业人员),-ment(性质;状态),-ness(性质;状态),-tion(动作;过程)等。例如:differ不同于→difference区别,write写→writer作家Japan日本→Japanese日本人act表演→actress女演员mouth口→mouthful一口music音乐→musician音乐家(2)构成动词的后缀常用的有-(e)n(多用于形容词之后),-fy(使……化),-ize(使……成为)。例如:wide→widen加宽beauty→beautify美化pure→purify提纯real→realize意识到organ→organize组织(3)构成形容词的后缀常用的有-al,-able(有能力的),-(a)n(某国人的),-en(多用于表示材料的名词后),-ern(方向的),-ese(某国人的),-ful,-(ic)al,-ish,-ive,-less(表示否定),-like(像……的),-ly,-ous,-some,-y(表示天气)等。例如:nature自然→natural自然的reason道理→reasonable有道理的America美国→American美国的China中国→Chinese中国人的,gold金子→golden金的east东→eastern东方的child孩子→childish孩子气的snow雪→snowy雪的(4)构成副词的常用后缀有-ly(主要用于形容词之后表示方式或程度),-ward(s)(主要用于表示方位的词之后表示方向)。例如:angry生气的→angrily生气地to到→towards朝……,向……east东方→eastward向东(5)构成数词的后缀有-teen(十几),-ty(几十),-th(构成序数词)。例如:six六→sixteen十六→sixteenth第十六four四→forty四十→fortieth第四十 3.合成法1)合成名词构成方式例词名词+名词weekend周末名词+动词daybreak黎明名词+动名词handwriting书法名词+及物动词+er/orpain-killer止痛药名词+介词+名词editor-in-chief总编辑,代词+名词she-wolf母狼动词+名词typewriter打字机动名词+名词reading-room阅览室现在分词+名词flying-fish飞鱼形容词+名词gentleman绅士副词+动词outbreak爆发介词+名词afternoon下午2)合成形容词名词+形容词snow-white雪白的名词+现在分词English-speaking讲英语的名词+to+名词face-to-face面对面的名词+过去分词man-made人造的数词+名词one-way单行的数词+名词+形容词two-year-old两岁的数词+名词+edfive-storeyed五层的动词+副词see-through透明的形容词+名词high-class高级的形容词+名词+ednoble-minded高尚的形容词+形容词light-blue浅蓝色的形容词+现在分词good-looking相貌好看的副词+形容词ever-green常青的副词+现在分词hard-working勤劳的,副词+过去分词well-known著名的副词+名词fast-food专门提供快餐服务的介词+名词downhill下坡的3)合成动词名词+动词sleep-walk梦游形容词+动词white-wash粉刷副词+动词overthrow推翻4)合成副词形容词+名词hotfoot匆忙地形容词+副词everywhere到处副词+副词however尽管如此介词+名词beforehand事先介词+副词forever永远5)合成代词代词宾格+selfherself她自己物主代词+selfmyself我自己形容词+名词anything任何东西6)合成介词副词+名词inside在……里面介词+副词within在……之内副词+介词into进入4.截短法(缩略法),截短法,即将单词缩写,词义和词性保持不变,主要有截头、去尾、截头去尾等形式。1)截头telephone→phoneaeroplane→planeomnibus→bus2)去尾mathematics→mathsco-operate→co-opexamination→examkilogram→kilolaboratory→labtaxicab→taxi3)截头去尾influenza→flurefrigerator→fridgeprescription→script5.混合法(混成法)混合法,即将两个词混合或各取一部分紧缩而成一个新词。后半部分表示主体;前半部分表示属性。newsbroadcast→newscast新闻广播televisionbroadcast→telecast电视播送,smokeandfog→smog烟雾helicopterairport→heliport直升飞机场6.首尾字母缩略法首尾字母缩略法,即用单词首尾字母组成一个新词。读音主要有两种形式,即各字母分别读音;作为一个单词读音。veryimportantperson→VIP(读字元音)要人;大人物television→TV(读字元音)电视TestingofEnglishasaForeignLanguage→TOEFL托福Nato三.巩固练习1.Thatmanwas________enoughnottotellthemanagerthathewouldnotdothejob.A.careB.carefulC.carelessD.carelessness2.Thesoldierdiedforsavingthechild,sohis________isheavierthanMountTai.A.dieB.deadC.diedD.death3.Thechildlooked________athisbrotherwhowasbadlywounded.A.sadlyB.sadnessC.sadlyD.sad,4.Heisanexpertatchemistry.Weallcallhima________.A.chemistryB.chemicalC.chemistD.physician5.Thethree-________chairisn’tsuitableforayoungchild.Hemayfalloff.A.leggingB.leggedC.legsD.leged6.Stephensonbecamethe________railwayengineerintheworld.A.leadB.leaderC.leadingD.leadership7.Whentheteacherpraisedhimforworkingoutthemathsproblem,Jacklooked________aboutathisclassmates.A.proudB.proudlyC.prideD.pridely8.Toeveryone’s________,thegirlfinishedthejobquitewell.A.satisfiedB.satisfactoryC.satisfyingD.satisfaction9.—Whatareyoudoinghere?,—Oh,myteacheraskedmetowriteapassageabout________inEnglish.—Youcanwrite________passageinEnglish?A.600words;a600-words B.600-word;a600-wordsC.600words;a600-word D.600words;a600-words10.Nooneshouldenterthespotwithoutthe________ofthepolice.A.permitB.permissionC.permittingD.permittence11.Youmustcomewithustothepolice________.Ourheadiswaitingforyou.A.headquartersB.headlineC.headmasterD.headache12.Lettingthatanimalescapewasnoaccident;youdidit________.A.intendB.intentionC.intentionally D.intentional13.Theshopownerwelcomedalltheguestswitha________smile.A.practiceB.practise,C.practicalD.practiced14.The________orderedhimtopaya$100fine.A.judgerB.judgmentC.judgeD.judgement15.MyTVisoutoforder.Canyoutellmewhatisthe________newsaboutIraqWar?A.latelyB.latestC.laterD.latter16.TheGreatWallismorethan6000liin________.A.longerB.lengthC.longD.longing17.Tomy________,Ipassedtheexameasily.A.joyB.joyfulC.joylessD.joyness18.Canadaismainlyan________country.A.English-speakingB.speak-EnglishC.spoken-EnglishD.English-spoken19.How________heis!Heisalwaysacting________.Heisreallya________.A.foolish;foolishly;foolB.fool;foolish;foolC.foolish;fool;fool,D.foolishly;foolish;fool20.Thenecklacethatshelostisveryexpensive.It’sofgreat________.A.valuableB.valueC.valuelessD.unvaluable21.Therewere________fishintheriverinSouthAmerica.A.indangerB.dangerC.dangerousD.dangerless22.Theletter“b”intheword“doubt”is________.A.soundB.silentC.silenceD.sounded23.Thechildlookedatme________.A.strangerB.strangelyC.strangeD.strangeless24.Theblackpeoplewereagainstslaveryandfoughtfortheir________bravely.A.freeB.freelyC.freedomD.frees25.Whatyousaidsounded________butinfactitwasuntrue.A.reasonableB.reasonful,C.reasonlessD.unreason26.Wehavetolearn________technologyfromothercountries.A.advanceB.advancingC.advantageD.advanced27.Thechildrenliveinavillage________.Theycomeherealmosteveryday.A.nearbyB.nearC.nearlyD.nearby28.MrBlackisan________inthearmy,notan________inthegovernment.Youcannoteasilyfindhiminhis________.A.official;officer;officeB.officer;office;officialC.official;official;officialD.officer;official;office29.You’dbettergiveupsmokingifyouwanttokeep________.A.healthB.healthyC.healthilyD.healthier30.________speaking,Ididn’tdoitonpurpose.A.Honestly B.Honest,C.HonestyD.Dishonest四.答案1-5BDACB6-10CBDCB11-15ACDCB16-20BAAAB21-25CBBCA26-30DADBA第二部分句法第18章名词性从句一.概念名词性从句共有四种:主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句和同位语从句二.相关知识点精讲主语从句:主语从句在整个句子中作主语。(1)不同于其它的连词,它不充当句子的成分,只是单纯的连接词,通常不可以省略。分句置于句首时,that绝对不可以省略。Thatthedrivercouldnotcontrolhiswarwasobvious(明显的,显而易见的).,Itwasobviousthatthedrivercouldnotcontrolhiscar.(2)if不能用在主语从句中,而是用whetherWhetherheleft(ornot)isunknown(3)当主语从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用第三人称单数,下面这个句型例外。Whatweneedismoretimeandmoney.Whatweneedaremanymorebooks.2.表语从句:表语从句出现在系动词后,充当表语。Thetroubleisthatweareshortofmoney.Goandgetyourcoat.It’swhereyouleftit.引导表语从句除了上述三类词外还有because,asif/asthough等等Thereason(why/forwhich…..)isthat……It/This/Thatisbecause……连系动词“appear,look,seem”的两个常用句型Itseems/appearsthat….Itlooks/seemsasif/asthough……(与事实相符用陈述语气,与事实相反用虚拟语气)as也可以引导表语从句Thingsarenotalwaysastheyseemtobe3.,宾语从句:及物动词,形容词和介词后加宾语从句作其宾语。宾语从句时态与主句相呼应,但宾语从句表示的是客观真理或普遍现象除外Theteachertoldusthattheearthmovesaroundthesun连词whether和if可以互换,但注意下列情况连词后紧跟ornot时用whetherIwanttoknowwhetherornottheywillcome.作介词宾语是用whether引导宾语从句Hewasinterestedinwhetherhesawherthere.连接词后直接加不定式,不能用if只能用whetherHedoesn’tknowwhethertostayornot.如果宾语从句是否定时,一般用if引导Icareifhewillnotattendthemeeting.当宾语从句后带宾补时,要用“主语+谓语+it+宾补+that-clause,that不可省略Ithinkitcertainthatshewilldowellinherexam.当主语是I,we,主句用think,believe,suppose,expect,imagine五个动词时,用否定转移Idon’tthinkhewillwinthegame,willhe?that在宾语从句常可以省略,但由and或but连接两个或多个宾语从句时,仅可以省略第一个连词that,Hesaid(that)hehadeatennothingbutthathewasn’thungry.注意区别if引导的宾语从句和条件状语从句Idon’tknowifhewillcome.Ifhecomes,I’llletyouknow.4.同位语从句,在句中作某些名词的同位语,对前面的名词进一步说明。用在下列名词fact,news,idea,hope,believe,hope,thought,doubt.truth,order,suggestion,wordetc.Thereisnodoubtthathewillcome.Thereisdoubtwhetherhewillcome.WordcamethatNapoleonwouldcometoinspectthem.Thereisnopossibilitythat….that引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别:在同位语从句中:that不可以省略,不作成分;定语从句的关系代词that在定语从句作成分,作宾语时可以省略Weareinterestedinthenewsthatsomeforeignerswouldvisitourschool.Weareinterestedinthenewsthathetoldus.when,where引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别:在定语从句中,when,where前有分别表示时间、地点的先行词;而在同位语从句中无此对应关系,Theyhavenoideaatallwherehehasgone.(同位语从句)Goandgetyourcoat.It’sintheplacewhereyouleftit.(定语从句)5.疑问词-ever既可以引导名词性从句,也可以引导让步状语从句,而nomatter+疑问词只能引导让步状语从句NomatterwhereIgo,myheartistowardsChina.Ibelieverwhateverhesays.Whateverhesays,Iwillneverbelievehim.who与whoever的区别who是“谁”的意思,表示具有疑问,who相当于anyonewho“无论谁”Whoeverleavestheroomlastoughttoturnoffthelights.Canyoutellmewhothatgentlemanis?6.当名词性从句缺少主语、宾语或表语时,引导词通常用what,它相当于。另外,有时具有感叹意义allthat,anythingthat或thething(s)thatWhatwecan’tgetseemsbetterthanwhatwehave.TomthoughtwhatabeautifulgirlMarywas.7.注意区分it作形式主语的主语从句与强调句强调句句型Itis/was+被强调部分+that,去掉Itis/was,,that,句子仍然成立。Itisnaturalthattheyshouldhavedifferentviews.主语从句Itisonlylatelythathehadhadafamilyhimself.强调句Whatwasitthathewanted?Idon’tknowwhatitwasthathewanted.Itwasinthehotelwherehestayedthatwediscussedtheseriousproblem8.注意it作形式主语的主语从句和as引导非限制性定语从句引导的不同Itisknowntoallthattheearthisround.Asisknowntoall.theearthisround.三.巩固练习1.____hedoeshasnothingtodowithme.A.whateverB.NomatterwhatC.ThatD.If2.Themanagercameoverandaskedthecustomerhow____A.didthequarrelcameaboutB.thequarrelhadcomeaboutC.hadthequarrelcomeaboutD.hadthequarrelcomeabout,3.Energyis____makesthingwork..A.whatB.somethingC.anythingD.that4.Informationhasbeenputforward____moremiddleschoolgraduateswillbeadmittedintouniversities.A.whileB.thatC.whenD.as5.Thisis___theshenzhouVSpaceshiplanded.A.thereB.inwhichC.whereD.when6.Theyhavenoideaatall____.A.wherehehasgoneB.wheredidhegoC.whichplacehashegoneD.wherehashegone7.Thedoctordidalottoreducethepatient’sfear____hewoulddieofthedisease.A.thatB.whichC.ofwhichD.ofthat8.Theordercame___thesoldiers____thesmallvillagethenextmorning.A.that;hadtoleaveB.that;shouldleaveC./;mustleaveD.when;shouldleave9.___isnopossibility____Bobcanwinthefirstprizeinthematch.A.There;thatB.It;thatC.there;whetherD.It;whether10.Thequestioncameupatthemeeting_____wehad,enoughmoneyforourresearch.A.thatB.whichC.whetherD.if11.Is_____hesaidreallytrue?A.thatB.whatC.whyD.whether12.____themeetingshouldlasttwodaysorthreedaysdoesn’tmatter.A.ThatB.WhetherC.IfD.Where13.Itworriedherabit_____herhairwasturninggray.A.whileB.ifC.thatD.for14._____morecountriescanusenaturalenergyinthefutureremainstobeseen.A.WhetherB.ThisC.whoD.If15.____hewillgotoworkinamountainvillagesurprisesallofus.A.WhatB.ThatC.WhetherD.If16.____youdon’tlikehimisnoneofmybusiness.A.WhatB.ThatC.WhoD.How17.____alltheinventionshaveincommonis____theyhavesucceeded.A.What;whatB.That;thatC.what;thatD.That;what,18.____appearedtomethatheenjoyedthefoodverymuch.A.WhatB.ItC.AllthatD.That19.Itiswidely______thatsmokingcancausecancer.A.believedB.thinkC.sayD.hoped20.____causedtheaccidentisstillacompletemystery.A.WhatB.ThatC.HowD.Where21.____healwaysservesthepeopleverywellisknown.A.WhatB.ThatC.WhichD.Who22.____haspassedthetestwillgetaprize.A.WhoeverB.NomaterwhoC.WhomeverD.Who23.Is____truethatthefamousscientistwillgiveusalecturenextweek?AthatBitChisDhe24.Ithasnotbeendecided___theywillleaveforNewYork.A.whenBwhyCthatDwhat25.Obviously___wedomorningexerciseseveryday___usgood.A.thatdoB.if;doCwhat;doesD.that;dose26Itissaid________wasall___hesaid.,Athat;that;thatBwhat;what;whatCthat;which;whatDthat;that;which27___getshomefirstistocookthesupper.A.WhoBWhomC.ThosewhoD.Whoever28___movedusmostwas___helikedaftertheoldmanformorethantwentyyears.A.That;thatB.What;thatCWhat;whatD.That;what29.___youdiditisnotknowntoall.A.WhoB.WhatC.HowD.Which30.___youdoshouldbewelldone.AHowB.ThatC.WhateverDWhy31.ThereasonIplantogois___shewillbedisappointedifIdon’t.A.becauseB.thatC.thankstoD.what32.Whattimedoyouthink__?A.willTomcomebackB.TomwillcomebackC.isTomcomingbackD.canTomgethere33.Theteachersaidthatlight___fasterthansound.A.HastraveledB.traveledC.hadtraveledD.travels34..___isstillaquestion___willwin.,A.It;thatB.It;whoC.That;whoD.This;that35.Ifyouknow___itwasthatwriteATaleofTwoCities,raiseyourhand.A.whomB.whichC.whoD.that36.Insomecountries,___arecalled“publicschools”arenotownedbythestate.A.thatB.whichC.asD.what37.Thinking___youknow___infactyoudon’tisaterriblemistake.A.that;thatB.what;whatC.that;whatD.whatthat38.Whetherwayswillbefoundtostoppollutionornotisjust___worriesthepublic.A.whyB.whichC.thatD.what39.Whydon’tyoubring___tohisattentionthatyouaretoobusytodoit?A.thatB.whatC.thatD.it40.___DavidsayssoundsrighttoHelen.That’swhyshehasmadeuphermindtoleavewithhim___happens.A.whatever;whateverB.Nomatterwhat;whateverC.Nomatterwhat;NomatterwhatD.Whatever;however41.Thatis___Iwasbornandgrewup.,A.ThereB.inwhichC.whereD.theplace42.___shewasinvitedtotheballmadeherveryhappy.A.WhatB.ThatC.WhenD.Because43.___wearedoinghasneverbeendonebefore.A.ThatB.WhatC.WhichD.Whether44.---Haveyoufoundyourbookyet?---No,I’mnotsure___Icouldhaveleftit.A.whetherB.whereC.whenD.why45.Thedoctorcouldn’tanswerthequestion___thepatientcouldsurvivethatnight.A.ifB.thatC.whetherD.what46.Ifirmlybelieve___hesaidatthemeetingwasright.A.thatB.whichC.thatwhatD.whatthat47.---Whatwereyoutryingtoprovetothepolice?---___Iwaslastnight.A.ThatB.WhenC.WhereD.What48.Ithink,thoughIcouldbemistaken,__helikedme.A.whoB.whichC.thatD.what49.Atthemeeting,wediscussed___weshouldemploymoreworkers.,A.ifB.whetherC.thatD./50.After___seemedlikehourshecameoutwithabittersmile.A.whichB.itC.whatD.that四.答案1—5ABABC6—10AABAC11—15BBCAB16—20BCBAA21—25BABAD26—30ADBCC31—35BBDBC36—40DCDDA41—45CBBBC46—50CCCBC第19章定语从句一.概念在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句,称为定语从句,也叫形容词性从句二.相关知识点精讲1.关系代词引导的定语从句关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。1)who,whom,that这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中作主语和宾语。例如:Ishethemanwho/thatwantstoseeyou?,他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)Heisthemanwhom/thatIsawyesterday.他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)2)whose用来指人或物,(只用作定语,若指物,它还可以同ofwhich互换)。例如:Theyrushedovertohelpthemanwhosecarhadbrokendown. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。Pleasepassmethebookwhose(ofwhich)coverisgreen. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。3)which,that所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。例如:Aprosperitywhich/thathadneverbeenseenbeforeappearsinthecountryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which/that在句中作宾语)Thepackage(which/that)youarecarryingisabouttocomeunwrapped.你拿的包快散了。(which/that在句中作宾语) 2.关系副词引导的定语从句关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。1)关系副词when,where,why的含义相当于"介词+,which"结构,因此常常和"介词+which"结构交替使用。例如:Thereareoccasionswhen(onwhich)onemustyield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。Beijingistheplacewhere(inwhich)Iwasborn. 北京是我的出生地。Isthisthereasonwhy(forwhich)herefusedouroffer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?2)that代替关系副词,可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when,where,why和"介词+which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略。例如:Hisfatherdiedtheyear(that/when/inwhich)hewasborn. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。Heisunlikelytofindtheplace(that/where/inwhich)helivedfortyyearsago.他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。 3.判断关系代词与关系副词方法一:用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:ThisisthemountainvillagewhereIstayedlastyear.这是我去年呆过的山村。I'llneverforgetthedayswhenIworkedtogether,withyou.我永远不会忘记与你共事的日子。习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词where,when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。方法二:准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词(who,whom,that,which,whose);先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词(where地点状语,when时间状语,why原因状语)。4.限制性和非限制性定语从句1)定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。例如: Thisisthehousewhichweboughtlastmonth.这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性) Thehouse,whichweboughtlastmonth,isverynice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)2)当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。例如: CharlesSmith,whowasmyformerteacher,retiredlastyear.查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。, Myhouse,whichIboughtlastyear,hasgotalovelygarden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。 Thisnovel,whichIhavereadthreetimes,isverytouching.这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。3)非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词,对其进行修饰,这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数。例如: HeseemsnottohavegraspedwhatImeant,whichgreatlyupsetsme.他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。 Liquidwaterchangestovapor,whichiscalledevaporation.液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。 5.介词+关系词1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。2)that前不能有介词。3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when和where互换。例如:ThisisthehouseinwhichIlivedtwoyearsago.这是我两年前住过的房子。ThisisthehousewhereIlivedtwoyearsago.Doyourememberthedayonwhichyoujoinedourclub?还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗?,Doyourememberthedaywhenyoujoinedourclub?6.as,which非限定性定语从句由as,which引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于andthis或andthat。As一般放在句首,which在句中。例如:Asweknow,smokingisharmfultoone'shealth.如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。Thesunheatstheearth,whichisveryimportanttous.太阳使地球暖起来,这对我们人类很重要。as和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:(1)as引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。(2)as代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。7.先行词和关系词二合一 1)Whoeverspitsinpublicwillbepunishedhere.(Whoever可以用anyonewho代替) 2)Theparentswillusewhattheyhavetosendtheirsontotechnicalschool.(what可以用allthat代替),8.what/whatever;that/what;who/whoever1)what=thethingwhich;whatever=anything。例如: Whatyouwanthasbeensenthere.你要的动词都送来了。 Whateveryouwantmakesnodifferencetome.不管你要什么,跟我没什么关系。2)who=thepersonthatwhoever=anyonewho。例如:3)that和what当that引导定语从句时,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何成分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的that常可省略。What只能引导名词性从句,用作连接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。例如:Ithink(that)youwilllikethestamps.我想你会喜欢这些邮票的。Whatweneedismorepractice.我们需要的是更多的实践。9.关系代词that的用法1)不用that的情况a)引导非限定性定语从句时。例如:(错)Thetree,thatisfourhundredyearsold,isveryfamoushere.b)介词后不能用。例如:, Wedependonthelandfromwhichwegetourfood.我们依赖土地获得食物。 Wedependonthelandthat/whichwegetourfoodfrom.2)只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况a) 在therebe句型中,只用that,不用which。b) 在不定代词,如:anything,nothing,theone,all,much,few,any,little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。c) 先行词有theonly,thevery修饰时,只用that。d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。.e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。例如:Allthatisneededisasupplyofoil.所需的只是供油问题。Finally,thethiefhandedeverythingthathehadstolentothepolice.那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。三.巩固练习1.Hisparentswouldn’tlethimmarryanyone______familywaspoor.A.ofwhomB.whomC.ofwhoseD.whose ,2.Sheheardaterriblenoise,_______broughtherheartintohermouth.A.itB.whichC.thisD.that3.Inthedarkstreet,therewasn’tasingleperson_____shecouldturnforhelp.A.thatB.whoC.fromwhom D.towhom 4.Theweatherturnedouttobeverygood,____wasmorethanwecouldexpect.A.whatB.whichC.thatD.it 5.AfterlivinginPairsforfiftyyearshereturnedtothesmalltown____hegrewupasachild. A.whichB.whereC.thatD.when6.CarolsaidtheworkwouldbedonebyOctober,_____personallyIdoubtverymuch. A.itB.thatC.whenD.which 7.Dorothywasalwaysspeakinghighlyofherroleintheplay,________,ofcourse,madetheothersunhappy.A.whoB.whichC.thisD.what 8.RecentlyIboughtanancientChinesevase,_____wasveryreasonable.A.whichpriceB.thepriceofwhichC.itsprice D.,thepriceofwhose9._____hasalreadybeenpointedout,grammarisnotasetofdeadrules.A.AsB.ItC.ThatD.Which10.HelivedinLondonfor3months,during____timehelearnedsomeEnglish.A.thisB.whichC.thatD.same11.Ohthewallhungapicture,_____colorisblue.A.whoseB.ofwhichC.whichD.its12.WheneverImethim,____wasfairlyoften,Ilikehissweetandhopefulsmile. A.whatB.whichC.thatD.when13.Thevisitoraskedtheguidetotakehispicture_____standsthefamoustower.A.thatB.whereC.whichD.there14.Theboss____departmentMsKingworkedtenyearsagolookdownuponwomen. A.inwhichB.inthatC.inwhoseD.whose15.Idon’tlike_____youspeaktoher.A.thewayB.thewayinthatC.thewaywhichD.thewayofwhich16.Ihadneitheraraincoatnoranumbrella._______,Igotwetthrough.A.It’sthereasonB.That’swhyC.There’swhyD.It’show17.Hemadeanotherwonderfuldiscovery,____ofgreatimportancetoscience.A.whichIthinkisB.whichIthinkitisC.whichIthinkitD.Ithinkwhichis18.Hewasveryrudetothecustomsofficer,____ofcoursemadethingsevenworse.A.whoB.whomC.whatD.which19.a)Heisaninterestingspeaker,and,_______ismoreimportant,heknowshissubjectthoroughly.b)Hewenttothemeeting,and,_______wasworse,insistedonspeaking.A.whatB.whichC.thatD.when20.Thefarmeruseswoodtobuildahouse________tostoregrain.A.inwhichB.whereC.whichD.withwhich21.Iwillinvite_______mydaughterloves.A.whoeverB.whomeverC.whicheverD.whatever22.Youcanbuyasmanycopiesofthisbook________youwants.,A.thatB.whichC.asD.forwhich23.Tomatemorefood_______wasgoodforhishealth.A.thatB.asC.thanD.which24.Hewashidingbehindthedoor_________hecouldseewhatwashappening.A.whichB.fromwhereCfromwhichD.where25.Shewore,_______wasveryuncommoninthecountry,aredgarment.A.whatB.thatC.whichD.it=Sheworearedgarment,_______wasveryuncommoninthecountry.26.TheEnglishplay____mystudentsactedattheNewYear'spartywasagreatsuccess.A.forwhichB.atwhichC.inwhichD.onwhich27.______isreportedinthenewspapers,talksbetweenthetwocountriesaremakingprogress.A.ItB.AsC.ThatD.What28.Thejourneyaroundtheworldtooktheoldsailorninemonths,_____thesailingtimewas226days.A.ofwhichB.duringwhichC.fromwhichD.forwhich29.Iworkinabusinessalmosteveryoneiswaitingforagreatchance.,A.howB.whichC.whereD.that30.Thereweredirtymarksonhertrousers______shehadwipedherhands.A.whereB.whichC.whenD.that31.Helenwasmuchkindertoheryoungestsonthantotheothers,,ofcourse,madetheothersenvyhim.A.whoB.thatC.whatD.which32.________isoftenthecase,wehaveworkedouttheproductionplan.A.WhichB.WhenC.WhatD.As33.Anyway,thatevening,____I’lltellyoumoreaboutlater,IendedupstayingatRachel’splace.A.whenB.whereC.whatD.which34.Astorygoes______ElizabethIofEnglandlikednothingmorethatbeingsurroundedbycleverandqualifiednoblemenatcourt.A.whenB.whereC.whatD.that35.Thefactoryproduceshalfamillionpairsofshoeseveryyear,80%aresoldabroad.A.ofwhichB.whichofC.ofthemD.ofthat,36.TherewastimeIhatedtogotoschool.A.a;thatB.a;whenC.the;thatD.the;when37.Therearetwobuildings,standsnearlyahundredfeethigh.A.thelargerB.thelargerofthemC.thelargeronethatD.thelargerofwhich38.Whatsurprisedmewasnotwhathesaidbuthesaidit.A.thewayB.inthewaythatC.inthewayD.thewaywhich39.Americanwomenusuallyidentifytheirbestfriendassomeone_____theycantalkfrequently.A.whoB.asC.aboutwhichD.withwhom40.GeorgeOrwell,_______wasEricArthur,wrotemanypoliticalnovelsandessays.A.therealnameB.whathisrealnameC.hisrealnameD.whoserealname四.答案1-5DBDBB6-10DBBAB11-15ABBCA16-20BADAA21-25BCCBC26-30CBACA31-35DDDDA36-40BDADD,第20章状语从句一.概念状语从句修饰主句中的动词,形容词,副词等,在复合句中作状语.引导状语从句的关联词是从属连词.状语从句用陈述句语序,一般位于复合句的句首或句末.当从句在句首时,从句后常用逗号和主句相隔.状语从句根据其在句中的不同作用分别表示时间,地点,原因,目的,结果,条件,比较,让步,行为方式等.二.相关知识点精讲1.地点状语从句地点状语从句通常由where,wherever引导。例如:WhereIlivethereareplentyoftrees.我住的地方树很多。WhereverIamIwillbethinkingofyou.不管我在哪里我都会想到你。2.方式状语从句方式状语从句通常由as,(just)as…so…,asif,asthough引导。1)as,(just)as…so…引导的方式状语从句通常位于主句后,但在(just)as…so…结构中位于句首,这时as从句带有比喻的含义,意思是"正如…,","就像",多用于正式文体。例如:Alwaysdototheothersasyouwouldbedoneby.你希望人家怎样待你,你就要怎样待人。Aswateristofish,soairistoman.我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水。 Justaswesweepourrooms,soweshouldsweepbackwardideasfromourminds.正如打扫房屋一样,我们也要扫除我们头脑中落后的东西。2)asif,asthough两者的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反,有时也用陈述语气,表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。汉译常作"仿佛……似的","好像……似的"。例如:Theycompletelyignorethesefactsasif(asthough)theyneverexisted.他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)Helooksasif(asthough)hehadbeenhitbylighting.他那样子就像被雷击了似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)Itlooksasiftheweathermaypickupverysoon.看来天气很快就会好起来。(实现的可能性较大,谓语用陈述语气。),说明:asif/asthough也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词短语。例如:Hestaredatmeasifseeingmeforfirsttime.他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一次看见我似的。 Heclearedhisthroatasiftosaysomething.他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。 Thewavesdashedontherocksasifinanger.波涛冲击着岩石,好像很愤怒 3.原因状语从句比较because,since,as和for:1)because语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答why提出的问题。当原因是显而易见的或已为人们所知,就用as或since。例如:Ididn'tgo,becauseIwasafraid.我不去是因为我怕。Since/Astheweatherissobad,wehavetodelayourjourney.天气那么糟,旅行推迟了。2)由because引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用for来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用for。例如:Heisabsenttoday,because/forheisill.他今天缺席,因为他病了。Hemustbeill,forheisabsenttoday.,他一定病了,所以今天缺席。4.目的状语从句表示目的状语的从句可以由that,sothat,inorderthat,lest,forfearthat,incase等词引导。例如:Youmustspeakloudersothat/inorderthatyoucanbeheardbyall.你必须大点声,别人就能听见了。Hewrotethenamedownforfearthat(lest)heshouldforgetit.他写下了这个名字以免以后忘记。Bettertakemoreclothesincasetheweatheriscold.最好多穿点衣服,以防天发冷。5.结果状语从句 结果状语从句常由so…that或such…that引导。so…that与such…that之间可以转换。例如:Theboyissoyoungthathecan'tgotoschool.这男孩年龄太小,不能上学。Heissuchayoungboythathecan'tgotoschool6.条件状语从句 连接词主要有if,unless,as/solongas,onconditionthat等。if引导的条件句有真实条件句和非真实条件句两种。非真实条件句已在虚拟语气中阐述。unless=ifnot.例如:Let'sgooutforawalkunlessyouaretootired.,如果不太累,我们去散散步。Ifyouarenottootied,let'sgooutforawalk.典型例题Youwillbelate___youleaveimmediately.A.unlessB.untilC.ifD.or答案A。句意:除非你立即走,否则你就回迟到的。可转化为Ifyoudongleaveimmediately,youwillbelate。B、D句意不对,or表转折,句子如为Youleaveimmediatelyoryouwillbelate.7.让步状语从句1)though,although引导的让步状语从句,后面的从句不能有but,但是though和yet可连用。例如:Althoughit'sraining,theyarestillworkinginthefield. 虽然在下雨,但他们仍在地里干活。Heisveryold,buthestillworksveryhard.虽然他很老了,但仍然努力地工作。Thoughthesorebehealed,yetascarmayremain.伤口虽愈合,但伤疤留下了。(谚语)2)as,though引导的让步从句必须表语或状语提前(形容词、副词、分词、实义动词提前)。例如: Childas/thoughhewas,heknewwhatwastherightthingtodo.虽然是个小孩,该做什么不做什么,他全知道。,3)everif,eventhough 即使。例如:We'llmakeatripeventhoughtheweatherisbad.即使天气不好,我们也要去远足。4)whether…or… 不管……都。例如:Whetheryoubelieveitornot,itistrue.信不信由你,这确实是真的。5) "nomatter+疑问词"或"疑问词+后缀ever"。例如:Nomatterwhathappened,hewouldnotmind.=Whateverhappened,hewouldnotmind.不管发生什么,他不在意。 替换:nomatterwhat=whatever nomatterwho=whoever nomatterwhen=whenever nomatterwhere=wherever nomatterwhich=whichever nomatterhow=however注意:nomatter不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。8.比较while,when,as1)as,when引导短暂性动作的动词。例如:Justas/Justwhen/WhenIstoppedmycar,amancameuptome.我一刹车,有一个人向我走来。2)当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前,只能用when,引导这个从句,不可用as或while。例如:Whenyouhavefinishedyourwork,youmayhavearest.赶完活后,你可以休息一下。3)从句表示"随时间推移"连词能用as,不用when或while。例如:Asthedaywenton,theweathergotworse. 日子一天天过去,天气越变越坏。9.比较until和till此两个连词意义相同。肯定形式表示的意思是"做某事直至某时",动词必须是延续性的。否定形式表达的意思是"直至某时才做某事"。动词为延续性或非延续性都可以。正确使用这两个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。肯定句:Isleptuntilmidnight.我一直睡到半夜时醒了。WaittillIcallyou.等着我叫你。(在肯定句中可用before代替。例如Let'sgetinthewheatbeforethesunsets.)否定句:Shedidn'tarriveuntil6o'clock.她直到6点才到。Don'tgetoffthebusuntilithasstopped.公共汽车停稳后再下车。Ididn'tmanagetodoituntilyouhadexplainedhow.,直到你教我后,我才会做。区别:1)until可用于句首,而till通常不用于句首。例如:Untilyoutoldme,Ihadheardnothingofwhathappened.直到你告诉我以前,出了什么事我一点也不知道。2)untilwhen疑问句中,until要放在句首。例如:---Untilwhenareyoustaying? 你呆到什么时候?---UntilnextMonday. 呆到下周一。 注意:否定句可用另外两种句式表示。1)Notuntil…在句首,主句用倒装。例如: Notuntiltheearlyyearsofthe19thcenturydidmanknowwhatheatis.直到19世纪初,人类才知道热为何物。 NotuntilIbegantoworkdidIrealizehowmuchtimeIhadwasted.直到工作,才认识到我已蹉跎了几多岁月。2)Itisnotuntil…that…。例如:ItwasnotuntilIbegantoworkthatIrealizedhowmuchtimeIhadwasted.10.表示"一…就…"的结构hardly/scarcely…when/before,nosooner…than 和assoonas都可以表示"一…就…"的意思。例如:,Ihadhardly/scarcelygothomewhenitbegantorain.刚回家,就下起雨来了。Ihadnosoonergothomethanitbegantorain.AssoonasIgothome,itbegantorain.注意:如果hardly,scarcely或nosooner置于句首,句子必须用倒装结构。例如:Hardly/ScarcelyhadIgothomewhenitbegantorain.NosoonerhadIgothomethanitbegantorain.三.巩固练习1.Thesephotographswillshowyou_____.A.whatdoesourvillagelooklikeB.whatourvillagelookslikeC.howdoesourvillagelooklikeD.howourvillagelookslike2.Canyoumakesure______thegoldring?A.whereAlicehadputB.wheredidAliceputC.whereAlicehasputD.wherehasAliceput3.Noonecanbesure_____inamillionyears.A.whatmanwilllooklikeB.whatwillmanlooklikeC.manwilllooklikewhatD.whatlookwillman,like4.—-Wehaven’theardfromJanealongtime.--Whatdoyousuppose_____toher?A.washappeningB.hashappenedC.tohappenD.havinghappened5.Goandgetyourcoat.It’s_____youleftit.A.thereB.whereC.therewhereD.wherethere6._____the2000OlympicGameswillbeheldinBeijingisnotknownyet.A.WheneverB.IfC.WhetherD.That7._____hesaidatthemeetingastionishedeveryonepresent.A.WhatB.ThatC.ThatfactD.Thematter8.—-Doyouremember_____hecame?--Yes,Ido.Hecamebycar.A.howB.whenC.thatD.it9._____wecan’tgetseemsbetterthan______wehave.A.What,whatB.What,thatC.That,thatD.That,what10.Afterthewar,anewschoolbuildingwasputup________therehadoncebeenatheatre.A.thatB.whereC.whichD.when11.Motherwillwaitforhimtohavedinnertogether.,A.HoweverlateisheB.HoweverheislateC.HoweverishelateD.Howeverlateheis12.Dr,BlackcomesfromeitherOxfordorCambridge,Ican'tremember_____.A.whereB.thereC.whichD.that13.Whydoyouwantanewjob_____you'vegotsuchagoodonealready?A.thatB.whereC.whichD.when14.--I’mgoingtothepostoffice.--_____you'rethere.canyougetmesomestamps?A.AsB.While C.BecauseD.If15._____you'vegotachance.youmightaswellmakefulluseofit. A.NowthatB.After C.AlthoughD.ASsoonas16.--IdrovetoZhuhaifortheairshowlastweek.--Isthat_____youhadafewdaysoff? A.why B.when C.what D.where17.Youshouldmakeitaruletoleavethings_____youcanfindthemagainA.whenB.whereC.thenD.there,18.We'llhavetofinishthejob._____.A.longittakeshoweverB.ittakeshoweverlongC.longhoweverittakesD.howeverlongittakes19.______shecouldn’tunderstandwas_______fewerandfewerstudentsshowedinterestinherlesson.A.What,whyB.That,whatC.What,becauseD.Why,that20.Someoneisringingthedoorbell.Goandsee___________.A.whoisheB.whoheisC.whoisitD.whoitis四.答案1-5BCABB6-10CAAAB11-15DCDBA16-20ABDAD第21章句子的种类概说1.按使用目的,句子可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。1)陈述句(DeclarativeSentences):说明一个事实或陈述一种看法。例如:Lighttravelsfasterthansound. 光比声传播速度快。(说明事实)Thefilmisratherboring. 这部电影很乏味。(说明看法),2)疑问句(InterrogativeSentences):提出问题。有以下四种:a.一般疑问句(GeneralQuestions):Canyoufinishtheworkintime?你能按时完成工作吗?b.特殊疑问句(Wh-Questions):Wheredoyoulive? 你住那儿?c.选择疑问句(AlternativeQuestions):Doyouwantteaorcoffee?你是要茶还是要咖啡?d.反意疑问句(Tag-Questions):Hedoesn'tknowher,doeshe?他不认识她,对不对? 3)祈使句(ImperativeSentences):提出请求,建议或发出命令。例如:Don'tbenervous! 别紧张!4)感叹句(ExclamatorySentences):表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪。例如:Whatgoodnewsitis! 多好的消息啊!2.句子按其结构可以分为以下三类:1)简单句(SimpleSentences):只包含一个主谓结构句子叫简单句。例如:Sheisfondofcollectingstamps.她喜欢集邮。2)并列句(Compound,Sentences):包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子叫并列句,句与句之间通常用并列连词或分号来连接。例如:Thefoodwasgood,buthehadlittleappetite.食物很精美,但他却没什么胃口。 3)复合句(ComplexSentences):包含一个主句和一个或几个从句的句子叫复合句,从句由从属连词引导。例如:Thefilmhadbegunwhenwegottothecinema.我们到达电影院的时候,电影已经开演了。3.基本句型:英语中千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下五种基本句型组合、扩展、变化而来的:1)主+动(SV)例如:Iwork. 我工作。2)主+动+表(SVP)例如:Johnisbusy. 约翰忙。3)主+动+宾(SVO)例如:ShestudiesEnglish. 她学英语。4)主+动+宾+补(SVOC)例如:Timewouldprovemeright.时间会证明我是对的。5)主+动+间宾+直宾(SVOiOd)例如:Mymothermademeanewdress. 我母亲给我做了一件新衣裳。第22章简单句和并列句一.概念(一)简单句由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语),所构成的句子叫简单句,其结构是主语+谓语。(二)并列句由并列连词把两个或两个以上的互相关连而又互相独立的独句(即简单句)连在一起而构成的句子叫并列句。其结构是:简单句+并列连词+简单句常用的连词有and,but,ornotonly...butalso,neither...nor,either...or二.相关知识点精讲(一)简单句1.主语、谓语在人称与数上的一致性。and连接两个并列主语时为复数,谓语动词也相应地使用复数形式,但:(1)如果and连接的两个名词是不可数名词且前面都没有冠词,若两个词表示一个事物或一个概念,谓语动词要用单数;如果两个词表示的是两个事物或两个概念,谓语动词则要用复数。(2)如果and连接的是两个可数单数名词,前一个有冠词,后一个没有冠词,意味着一个人或事物,谓语动词要用单数。(3)当and连接的两个名词前都有each,every,manya,no等单数概念的限定词修饰时(第二个名词前的修饰词有时可以省略),谓语动词要用单数。,2.陈述句与疑问句的转换。3.选择疑问句。4.反意疑问句。(1)陈述句+省略问句(2)祈使句+附加疑问句反意疑问句的回答(二)并列句并列句分为:联合并列句,转折并列句,选择并列句和因果并列句联合并列句常由并列词and,notonly…butalso…..等连接如:Useyourhand,andyou’llfindaway.转折并列句常由并列连词but,while,yet,whereas,nevertheless等连接如:Iwouldlovetohavegonetothe注:2,3,4点内容不在这里介绍,讲参阅相关章节partylastnightbutIhadtoworkextrahourstofinishareport.选择疑问句常由并列连词or,otherwise,either…or…,等连接如:EitheryouleavethishouseorI’llcallthepolice因果并列句由并列连词so,for,therefore等连接.如:itwaslate,sowewenthome.,在”祈使句+and/or+陈述句”结构中,当前后两部分间为承接关系时,用and;前后意思为相反关系时,用or.可将前面的祈使句转换成由if引导的条件状语从句,但必须将and或or去掉.如:Hurryup,andwe’llbethereintime.=Ifwehurryup,we’llbethereintime.because和so;although,though和but不能连用三.巩固练习1.Idon’tsupposeanyonewillvolunteer,___?A.doIB.don’tIC.willtheyD.won’tthey2.___helpifyoucan,andourcountrywillimprovemorequicklyandbetter.A.GivingB.GiveC.GivenD.Togive3.——Lucy,youwashthedishes,___?——Mom,can’tLilydoit?It’sherturntodoit.A.don’tyouB.canyouC.shallyouD.willyou4.——Iwillnottakeanumbrellawithmetoday.—_____itrainslateronintheday?A.HowB.WhatC.HowaboutD.Whatif5.——Yououghttostayuplatetonight,____you?——Yes.I’vegottoomuchhomework.A.can’tB.shouldn’tC.mustn’tD.won’t,6.Nothingcanstopusfromservingthepeopleheartandsoul,____?A.canitB.can’titC.cantheyD.can’tthey7.Thereusedtobeachurchinthesmalltown,_____?A.usedthereB.usedn’tthereC.useditD.usedn’tit8.——Sheisn’tyourneighbour,isshe?——_______.A.Yes,sheisn’tB.No,sheisC.Yes,sheis D.No,isn’tshe9.——______tobeaPLAsoldierwhenIwasyoung.——Andnowyouare.A.HowIwantedB.HowdidIwantC.WhatIwantedD.WhatdidIwant10.RecentlyIboughtanancientChinesevase,____wasveryreasonable.A.whichpriceB.thepriceofwhichC.itspriceD.thepriceofthat11.Aftertenyears,shechangedalotandlookeddifferentfrom___sheusedtobe.,A.thatB.whomC.whatD.who12.____isknowntoeveryone,themoontravelsroundtheearthonceeverymonth.A.ItB.AsC.ThatD.What13.He’sgothimselfintoadangeroussituation___heislikelytolosecontrolovertheplane.A.whereB.whichC.whileD.why14.Informationhasbeenputforward___moremiddleschoolgraduateswillbeadmittedintouniversities.A.whileB.thatC.whenD.as15.Whatthedoctorsreallydoubtis____mymotherwillrecoverfromtheseriousdiseasesoon.A.whenB.howC.whetherD.what16.Thestudentsofthemusicschoolstudy____.A.musicbutalsosomeothersubjectsB.someothersubjectsaswellasmusicC.musicaswellassomeothersubjectsD.someothersubjectsandmusic17.___airistoman,soiswatertofish.A.SinceB.JustC.LikeD.As18.Thereisplentyofraininthesouth__thereislittleinthenorth.,A.whileB.asC.whenD.so19.___severaltimesaboutit,buthecouldnotgivethecorrectanswer.A.BeingaskedB.HavingbeenaskedC.HewouldaskD.Hehadbeenasked20.——Idon’tlikechicken___fish.——Idon’tlikechicken,___Ilikefishverymuch.A.and;andB.and;butC.or;butD.or;and21.___thedayswenton,thesituationtheregotworse.A.WithB.SinceC.WhileD.As22.___everybodyishere,let’ssetoutrightaway.A.NowthatB.BecauseC.ForD.After23.Thescienceofmedicine,___progresshasbeenveryrapidlately,isperhapsthemostimportantofallthesciences.A.towhichB.inwhichC.whichD.withwhich24.Wemustdotheexperimentcarefully___MissLiutoldus.A.whatB.sinceC.asD.while25.Tonywillneverforgetthesedays___shelivedinChinawithhermother,___hasagreateffecton,herlife.A.that;whichB.when;whichC.which;thatD.when;that26.___Iknow,theywillgotoBeijingtowatchtheOlympicGamesin2008.A.SinceB.SofarasC.IncaseD.Asif27.Whodoyouthinkthedoctorwillhave___first,JohnorKate?A.examineB.toexamineC.examiningD.examined28.——Whatareyouanxiousabout?——_____.A.WhetherwecansucceedB.IfwesucceedC.DowesucceedD.Thatwecansucceed29.Youshouldputthedictionary___youcanfinditeasily.A.whereB.theplaceC.theplaceonwhichD.what30.Shesaidtome,“I’lltellyoutheresultofthetest___Iknowit.”A.becauseB.themomentC.afterD.though31.Grandpausedtotellussomethingaboutthe,“CulturalRevolution”___hehadtimetospare.A.assoonasB.asC.sothatD.whenever32.LiFangisverybusy,___she’salwayshelpingotherswiththeirlessons.A.butB.althoughC.soD.for33.Gettingarightjobcanbedifficult___thestudents___preparedtodealwiththejobinterview.A.if;won’tB.unless;willC.unless;areD.if;are34.Everythingdependson__theywillsupportyouaboutit.A.ifB.whichC.whetherD.that35.Shewonthefirstprizeinthespeechcontestand___surprizedus.A.whichB.itC.asD.who36.TheOscarisoneofthefilmprizes__offeredtoanyChineseactororactresssofar.A.whichisnotB.thathavenotbeenC.thathasnotD.thathasnotbeen37.Hemadeanotherwonderfuldiscovery,___ofgreatimportancetoscience.,A.whichIthinkisB.whichIthinkitisC.whichIthinkitD.Ithinkis38.It’sreallyverydangerous.Onemorestep,___thebabywillfallintothewell.A.orB.soC.butD.and39.SheisAmerican,___sheknowslittleaboutAmericanhistory.A.soB.yetC.andD.therefore40.Informationtechnologyistaughtinmostschools,___wehaveenteredtheinformationsociety.A.soB.whileC.stillD.for41.——Helenmustobeyherparents.——Oh,shemust,__?A.mustsheB.mustn’tsheC.shouldn’tsheD.shouldshe42.Johnmustbeinthechemistrylab,___?A.mustn’theB.needn’theC.isn’theD.shouldn’the43.Itwasquitealongtime___Imadeitoutwhathadhappened.A.afterB.beforeC.whenD.since44.__thetextasecondtime,themeaningwill,becomeclearertoyou.A.ReadB.ReadingC.IfreadingD.Whenyouread45.___doeshedohisworkwell,___hehelpsotherswiththeirwork.A.Notonly;butalsoB.Neither;norC.Either;orD.Both;and46.__,sohedidn’tcometoschoollastweek.A.ThoughhewasillB.BeingillC.HavingbeenillD.Hewasill47.Shetriedeveryway___shecouldfindtosolvetheproblem.A.howB.inwhichC.thatD.which48.Lilyhassomeidea___she’sgoingtobewhenshegrowsup.A.whatB.thatC.asD.which49.Toplayfairisasimportantas____,Ithink.A.toplaywell B.playwellC.weplaywellD.playingwell50.___yougo,youshouldbearthemotherlandinmind.A.WhereB.Whenever,C.HoweverD.Wherever四.答案1-10CBDDBABCAB11-20CBABCBDADC21-30DABCBBDAAB31-40DACCBBADBD41-50ACBDADCAAD第23章祈使句一.概念祈使句用以表达命令,要求,请求,劝告等。二.相关知识点精讲1.祈使句有两种类型,一种是以动词原形开头,在动词原形之前加do(但只限于省略第二人称主语的句子)。例如:Takethisseat.坐这儿。Dobecareful.务必小心。否定结构:例如:Don'tmove.不准动。Don'tbelate.不要迟到。2.以let开头的祈使句Let的反意疑问句:a.Let's包括说话者。例如: Let'shaveanothertry,shallwe/shan'twe?=Shallwehaveanothertry?我们再试一次,如何?b.Letus不包括说话者。例如:,Letushaveanothertry,willyou/won'tyou?=Willyoupleaseletushaveanothertry?你让我们再试一次,好吗?否定结构:例如:Let'snottalkofthatmatter.不要谈这件事。Letusnottalkofthatmatter.你不要让我们谈这件事。第24章感叹句一.概念感叹句通常有what,how引导,表示赞美、惊叹、喜悦、等感情二.相关知识点精讲1.How+形容词+a+名词+陈述语序。例如:Howcleveraboyheis!他是多聪明的孩子!2.How+形容词或副词+陈述语序。例如:Howlovelythebabyis!小毛头真可爱!3.What+名词+陈述语序。例如:Whatnoisetheyaremaking!他们真吵!4.What+a+形容词+名词+陈述语序。例如:Whatacleverboyheis!他是多聪明的孩子!5.What+形容词+复数名词+陈述语序。例如:Whatwonderful,ideas(wehave)!我们的主意真棒!6.What+形容词+不可数名词+陈述语序。例如:Whatcoldweatheritis!多冷的天!7.Whatacleverboyheis!的省略形式为:Whatacleverboy!第25章否定句一.概念否定句指否定陈述句的句子.二.相关知识点精讲用not构成的否定句:主语+助动词/be+not+…例句:Heisnotbackyet.Itisnottrue.Wehaven’tforgottenyou.Youshouldn’tbesosilly.Wehaven’tbeeninvitedyet.Hewon’tgo,buttheywill.Moneycouldnotbuyhappiness.Ilikethesalad,butIdon’tlikethissoup.Hewantsagirlfriend,buthedoesn’twanttogetmarried.,Youdidn’tunderstandwhatIsaid,didyou?Youneedn’ttrytoexplain.Ididn’tusetolikeopera,butnowI’mgettinginterested.Iusedn’ttolikeopera,butnowI’mgettinginterested.祈使句的否定句:Don’t+动词原形…。例句:Don’tworry.I’lllookafteryou.Don’tbelieveawordhesays.Don’tbesorude.3.非谓语动词(不定式,分词,动名词)的否定式:把not放在todo;doing;的前面。It’simportantnottoworry.Hesaidhedeeplyregrettednotbeingabletohelp.Notknowingwhattodo,Shellyaskedadviceofherfriend.Hereproachedmefornothavingtoldittohim.4.not与除谓语以外的其他句子成分连用:Comeearly,butnotbeforesix.It’sworking,butnotproperly.Ibelievehewillsucceed,thoughnotwithoutsome,difficulty.not用在Ihope;Ibelieve;I’mafraid;Iguess;Isuppose;Iexpect之后,构成省略句。—Willitsnowtoday?—Ihopenot.5.用no构成否定句:no+名词(单,复数,不可数)相当于not+a+名词/not+any+名词Nomachinewouldworkforlongifitwerenotproperlylubricated.ThenationsofEuropeandAmericahavefoundthatnocountrycanproduceallitsneedswithouttrading.Takethattowel,Ihavenoother.Icanwalknofarther.Thereisnoknowingwhatwillhappen.6.某些否定副词或代词:seldom;never;hardly;rarely;little;few;none;nowhere;neither等在句中构成否定句:Icanseldomfindtimeforreading.Mirrortellsonlythefacts,neverthepoetry.Therumorcamefromnowhere.Nonebutfoolshaveeverbelievedit.7.否定转移:当think;believe;suppose;,imagine等动词引导否定意义的宾语从句时,把从句中的not提到主句这些动词前面,是主句变成否定句:Idon’tthinkshe’sathome,butI’llgoandsee.Idon’timaginethathe’llenjoyit.8.否定式疑问句:Doesn’tsheunderstand?Haven’tyoubookedyourholidayyet?部分否定:注意部分否定的结构:Notall…=All…not…Notboth…=Both…not…Notevery…=Every…not…Idon’trememberallthenames.Allisnotgoldthatglitters.Itisnotfoundeverywhere.Noteveryonelikesthisfilm.9.用否定形式表示肯定的意义:注意这些句型:cannot…too../cannot…more:越…就越好;再…不过了。Youcannotbetoocareful.Amancanneverhavetoomanyfriends.,三.巩固练习1.—Suchasuddenturnintheroadistoodifficultforthenewdriver,isn’tit? —_____.He’sdealtwithallkindsoftroublesomesituationsbefore.A.No,itisn’tB.Yes,itisC.No,heisn’tD.Yes,heis2.—Aren’tyoufeelingtired?—______,Iamrather.A.YesB.NoC.NotatallD.Never3.—Sheisn’tadancingteacher,isshe? —______.A.Yes,sheisn’tB.No,sheisC.Yes,shewasn’tD.No,butshewas.4.—Willyougoshoppingwithusthisafternoon? —_____butI’vegotquitealotofhomeworktodo.A.ofcourseB.I’dliketoC.That’sallrightD.No,Iwon’t5.—Ifourparentswouldlistenmoretous,theywouldunderstandusbetter. —_____.Theyjustexpectustolisten.A.IbelievenotB.NoproblemC.GoodideaD.,Ican’tagreemore6.—Didyouenjoythetrip? —I’mafraidnot.And_____.A.myclassmatescan’teither.B.myclassmatesdon’ttoo.C.neitherdomyclassmatesD.neitherdidmyclassmates7.Trytoretellthestoryinyourownwords.______afraidtomakemistakes.A.NottobeB.Don’tC.NobeD.Don’tbe四.答案AADBDDD第26章反意疑问句一.概念反意疑问句是附加在陈述句之后,对陈述句所表示的事实或观点提出疑问的句子.附加疑问实际上是一种简略的一般疑问句.二.相关知识点精讲1.反意疑问句的结构:陈述句(主语+谓语……),+助动词/情态动词/be动词+主语(代词形式)?,说明:陈述句部分如果是肯定句,反意疑问句,疑问句部分的助动词/情态动词/be动词+not(否定提问);如果陈述句部分是否定句,反意疑问句,疑问句部分用肯定式提问。例句:Heisyourteacher,isn’the?Peopleshouldn’tdroplitteronthepavements,shouldthey?Youfoundthekeyinthebedroom,didn’tyou?Theyhaveahouseintown,haven’tthey?/don’tthey?Theboyhastocleanhisroom,doesn’the?Iamright,aren’tI?They’drathergobybus,wouldn’tthey?You’dbetterchangeyourwetskirt,hadn’tyou?He’dliketojoinourdiscussion,wouldn’the?Sheoughttoseeadoctoratonce,shouldn’tshe?/oughtn’tshe?Iwishtosayafewwords,mayI?That’snice,isn’tit?Thisistheplace,isn’tit?Everybodyknowstheanswer,don’tthey?Nothingisserious,isn’tit?Therewasn’tenoughtimeatthatmoment,wasthere?,Thereusedtoatowerhere,usedn’tthere?/didn’tthere?Whatyouneedismorepractice,isn’tit?2.某些特殊句型的反意疑问句:1)祈使句的反意疑问句:表示肯定意义的祈使句,即表示“请求,提示”它的反意疑问句用willyou表达:有时也可以用won’tyou表示。Gohomenow,willyou?Closethewindow,please,willyou?否定祈使句:以Don’t开始的祈使句:表示“不要……”,用willyou提问:Don’tbelateagain,willyou?Don’tforgettopayyourincometax,willyou?Let’s引导的祈使句表示“建议”,反意疑问句部分是:shallwe?Let’sgoforawalk,shallwe?Let’shavearestnow,shallwe?Letme或Letus引导的祈使句表示“请求”,反意疑问句部分为willyou:Letmehaveatry,willyou?Letushelp,willyou?2)感叹句的反意疑问句:一律用否定式提问。,Whatacleverboy,isn’the?Whatalovelyday,isn’tit?3)陈述句含有情态动词must有两种情况:must表示“必须”,反意疑问句部分为mustn’t…?/needn’t…?HemuststudyhardatEnglish,mustn’the?/needn’the?Youmustgohomenow,needn’tyou?/mustn’tyou?Wemustn’tbelate,mustwe?Must表示推测:“一定,肯定”反意疑问句部分与must后面的动词呼应Youmustbejoking,aren’tyou?Hemustbeill,isn’the?注意:用must对过去的动作推测时,反意疑问句部分的助动词用did或have,而对过去的状态推测,反意疑问句部分的be动词用was:Shemusthavefinishedherwork,hasn’tshe?/didn’tshe?Jackmusthavearrivedhereyesterday,didn’the?Hemusthavebeenapoliceman,wasn’the?4)陈述句中有否定副词:hardly;never;seldom;little;few;nowhere;nothing等词,反意疑问句部分用肯定提问:,Frankhardlygoestoparties,doeshe?Hehasfewfriends,hashe?5)复合句的反意疑问句:大多数复合句的反意疑问句都对主句提问:Hewaspunishedbecauseheviolatedtheregulation,wasn’the?Younevertoldmethatyouhadbeenill,didyou?注意:Idon’tthink/suppose/believe/imagine引导的宾语从句,这种宾语从句的反意疑问句应与从句的主语,谓语部分一致,而且用肯定式的提问。Idon’tsupposeanyonewillvolunteer,willthey?Idon’tbelieveshehasdoneit,hasshe?Ithinkhewillcome.won’the?三.巩固练习1.It’safineday,Let’sgofishing,_____?A.won’tweB.willweC.don’tweD.shallwe2.Frankisworkinglateagain.Thisisthefirsttimethisweekhe’shadtostudylate,____?A.isn’theB.hasn’titC.hasn’theD.isn’tit3.—Daddy’sforgottoposttheletteragain,,____?—I’mafraidhe___.A.has;hasB.isn’t;isC.hasn’t;hasD.has;hasn’t4.—Sorry,I’mnotfeelingwellandIdon’tthinkIcanfinish.—Don’tworry.Letusdoitforyou,____?A.willyouB.shallweC.shan’tweD.shallyou5.Idon’tthinkhecouldhavedonesuchastupidthinglastnight,____?A.doIB.couldheC.didheD.hashe6.—Thegroundiswet.—Itmusthaverainedlastnight,____?A.hasn’titB.didn’titC.mustn’titD.isn’tit7.—Jennydoesn’tthinkthatRobertishonest,___?—I’mafraidnot.A.isheB.isn’theC.doessheD.doesn’tshe,8.—Thenewwindowsneedwashing.—Well,let’swashthemtogether,____?A.shallweB.willyouC.shouldweD.wouldyou9.Thereislittlewecandoaboutit,____?A.isthereB.can’tweC.isn’tthereD.canwe10.—Theproblemwasn’tdifficultforhim,wasit?—______.Heshouldhavebeengivenamoredifficultone.A.No,itwasB.Yes,itwasC.Yes,itwasn’tD.No,itwasn’t四.答案DDCACBCAAD第27章倒装句一.概念:英语句子通常有两种语序:一种主语在前,谓语在后,称为自然语序,另一种谓误在前,主语在后,称为倒装语序二.相关知识点精讲按“主语+谓语”,这种顺序排列的句子是陈述语序。如果排列顺序变为“谓语(或谓语一部分)+主语”,就是倒装。倒装句分为:完全倒装:整个谓语移至主语前面叫完全倒装。部分倒装:只把助动词、系动词或情态动词放在主语之前叫部分倒装。1.当以there,here,out,in,up,down,away等副词开头的句子,为了起到强调的作用,可构成倒装句,只把副词放在句首,主语和谓语位置调换,不加助动词。Ourteachercamein.Incameourteacher.这种倒装要求:主语必须是名词。主语是人称代词时,主语和谓语语序不变。Hereitis.Awayhewent.这类倒装句式一般只用一般现在时和一般过去时。Herecomesthebus.Outrushedtheboys.2.how,then,just,often表示时间的副词放在句首,可构成倒装句,只把副词放在句首,主语和谓语位置调换,不加助动词。Thencame8yearsoftheAntiJapaneseWar.3.,表地点状语的介词短语放在句首,要用倒装句式,以示强调。这种倒装句也是主谓直接调换位置,不加助动词did,does或do.Underabigtree________,halfasleep.A.didsatafatmanB.afatmansatC.didafatmansatD.satafatman4.there放在句首时,要用倒装句式。在“there+be”结构中的谓语动词有时不用be,而用表示类似“存在”观念的其他不及物动词。如:live,stand,come,lie,flow,enter,rise和appear等。Therecameshoutsforhelpfromtheriver.Thereliesalargewheatfieldinfrontofthehouse.Manyyearsagotherelivedanoldmaninthewoodenhouse.Infrontofthetowerflewsastream.5.so+动词+主语neither/nor+动词+主语表示两人的同样一个情况时,只能表示一件事,即上、下句所使用的动词、时态要一致。否则要用soitiswith…Youcanrideabike.SocanI.HehasbeentoBeijing.SohaveI.,Thefirstoneisn’tgood,neitheristhesecond.Hisuncleisaworkerandhasbeenworkinginthefactoryformorethantenyears.Soitiswithhisaunt.6.so+形容词/副词that的结构状语从句可以用正常语序表示,也可以把so+形容词/副词放于句首构成倒装。句型如下:so+形容词/副词+be/助动词/情态动词that+从句。Lighttravelssofastthatitisdifficultforustoimagineitsspeed.=Sofastdoeslighttravelthatitisdifficultforustoimagineitsspeed.Soeasywastheworkthattheyfinisheditinafewdays.7.done做形容词在句中做表语时,常把表语放在句首,要用倒装句式。GoneforeverarethedayswhentheChinesepeoplehadtouseforeignoil.8.否定副词not,never,seldom,nowhere,little,rarely放于句首时要用倒装句式。Weseldomgetupatfourinthemorning.=Seldomdowegetupatfourinthemorning.Notasinglewordfromhimcouldtheenemydrag.,RarelyhaveIheardofsuchasillything.9.hardly…when;scarcely…when…;nosooner…than…可以用正常语序hadhardlydonewhen…did或用倒装句式Hardlyhad+主语+donewhen…did句式。hardly所在的句子用过去完成时。Thebellhardlyhadrungwhentheclassbegan.=Hardlyhadthebellrungwhentheclassbegan.NosoonerhadhearrivedinBeijingthanhebegantowork.10.notonly…butalso如连接两个成分时,不用倒装;连接句子时,前面的句子要用倒装。Notonlywaseverythingthathehadtakenawayfromhim,butalsohisGermancitizenship.Notonlyishebusy,butalsoIhavealotofworktodo.NotonlydoeshespeakEnglishverywell,butalsohespeaksFrenchwell.11.only及所修饰的副词、介词短语或状语从句放在句首时,要用:only+状语+be/助动词/情态动词+主语及其他OnlywhenhetoldmethenewsdidIknowwhathadhappened.,OnlyinthiswaycanyoumakeprogressinyourEnglish.12.虚拟语气中的倒装句IfIwereyou,Iwouldtakethejob.=WereIyou,Iwouldtakethejob.三.巩固练习1._______andcaughtthemouse.A.UpthecatjumpedB.ThecatupjumpedC.UpjumpedthecatD.Jumpedupthecat2.______andthelessonbegan.A.IncameMrBrownB.MrBrownincameC.IncameheD.cameinMrBrown3.Over_______,dead.A.rollingthegoatB.rolledthegoatC.didthegoatrollD.thegoatrolled4.—Whereismyshirt,mum? —_________.A.ThereisitB.ThereitisC.ThereisD.Hereisit5.—Whereisyourfather?—Oh,________.A.herehecomesB.heherecomesC.heredoeshecomeD.herecomeshe,6.Thedooropenedandthere________.A.entersanoldmanB.enteredanoldmanC.didanoldmanenterD.anoldmanentered7.Now______yourturntorecitethetext.A.willcomeB.comesC.hascomeD.thereis8.Often_____themnottosmokehere.A.weadvisedB.advisedmeC.didweadviseD.hadweadvised9.________playingsoldiers.A.InsidetheroomweretwoboysB.InsidetheroomtwoboysC.WeretwoboysinsidetheroomD.Insidetheroomwastwoboys10.Onthewall_______twolargeportraits.A.arehangingB.hangedC.hangD.hangs11._______whowaswoundedinthestomach.A.AmongthemwereasoldierB.Amongthemwasasoldier,C.AmongthemasoldierwasD.Amongtheywasasoldier12.Nextdoortoours________,whoisnolessthaneighty.A.thatlivesanoldmanB.doesanoldmanliveC.livesanoldmanD.wherelivesanoldman13.Sheplaysthepianoverywell,______.A.soeveryoneofusdoesB.everyoneofusdoesC.sodoeseveryoneofusD.sodoeveryoneofus14.Yousayheworkshard,______,and_____.A.sohedoes;soyoudoB.sohedoes;sodoyouC.sodoeshe;sodoyouD.sodoeshe;soyoudo15.—Ithoughtyouwomenwerepresentatthemeeting. —__________.A.SowewereB.Sowedid,C.SowereweD.Sodidwe16.Idon’tthinkJackwillcometoday,_____.A.norwillMaryB.andMarydoesn’tC.MarywilleitherD.orMarydoes17.Sheisfondofcooking,_____I.A.soamB.noramC.neitherdoD.nordo18.MarxwasborninGermanyandGermanwashisnativelanguage.A.SoitwaswithEnglesB.SowasitwithEnglesC.SowasEnglesD.SodidEngles19.Afishneedswaterandwithoutwateritwilldie._______.A.SodoesamanB.SowillamanC.SoitiswithamanD.Soisitwithaman20.Soabsorbed_______theworkthatsheoftenforgot,to_____hermeals.A.hadshebeenin;doB.shewasin;makeC.wasshein;takeD.shehadbeenin;have21.Soloudly______thateveryoneoftheclasscouldhearhim.A.didhespeakB.didhespokeC.spokeheD.hespoke22.__________hisapperancethatnoonecouldrecognizehim.A.StrangesowasB.SostrangewasC.WassostrangeD.Sowasstrange23.Notonce______theirplan.A.didtheychangeB.theychangedC.changedtheyD.theydidchange,24.Never______suchawonderfulplaceasHangzhou.A.areseeingB.hadIseenC.IhaveseenD.haveIseen25.Seldom______TVduringtheday.A.theywatchB.aretheywatchingC.havetheywatchedD.dotheywatch26.Nowhere______asinmygarden.A.theflowersweresobeautifulB.weretheflowerssobeautifulC.sobeautifulweretheflowersD.sobeautifultheflowerswere27.Hardly________hishomeworkwhenhewentout.A.finishedheB.hehadfinishedC.didhefinishD.hadhefinished28.Scarcely_____finishedtheirhomework______Icameintotheclassroom.A.hadthey;thanB.theyhad;whenC.hadthey;whenD.didthey;when29.Notonly_______apromise,butalsohekeptit.A.hashemadeB.doeshemakeC.hemadeD.didhemake30.Notuntilhiscomradescriticizedhim_______to,admithismistake.A.hadhebegunB.beganheC.didhebeginD.doeshebegin四.答案1—5CABBA6—10BBBDA11—15BCCBA16—20BAACC21—25ABADD26—30BDCDC第28章省略句一.概念英语中,为了避免重复,常常省略句子中的一个或几个成分,这样的句子叫省略句二.相关知识点精讲1.简单句中的省略:在对话中,交谈双方都知道谈论的对象,则可以省略句子的主语,省略主语和谓语的现象在交际用语中出现的很多。(1)Lookslikerain.(2)Hopetohearfromyousoon.(3)Soundslikeagoodidea.(4)Begyourpardon.(5)Feelingbettertoday?(6)Thisway,please.,(7)—Whatdoeshewanttoeat?—Somericeandvegetables.(8)AnythingIcandoforyou?(9)Sorrytohearthat.(10)Doesn’tmatter.(11)Terribleweather!(12)Pityyoucouldn’tcome.2.并列句中的省略:在并列句中,相同的成分如主语,谓语,宾语等都可以省略:(1)TheylearnFrenchandweEnglish.(2)Myfatherplannedandbuiltallthesehouses.(3)JohnwonthefirstraceandJimmythesecond.(4)Coralisnotaplantbutavarietyofanimallife.3.复合句中的省略:定语从句:(1)That’sthereasonheislatefortheconference.(2)Idon’tlikethewayhetalks.状语从句:(1)Ifheated,waterwillboil.(2)Tomwasattackedbycrampwhileswimmingacrosstheriver.,(3)We’llgotohelpyouifnecessary.(4)HadItime,Iwouldcome.(5)I’llgo,shoulditbenecessary.(6)Thecaptaincanfindaboatquickerthanwecan.宾语从句:如果宾语从句中的谓语部分与主句的谓语部分或上文的谓语部分相同,可将从句部分的谓语省略。(1)Wewilldowhatwecan(do)tohelpyou.(2)—IsMr.Kinginhisoffice?—Sorry,Idon’tknow(whetherheisinhisofficeornot).4.动词不定式的省略:在动词不定式结构中,为了避免重复,常常省略不定式结构中的动词原形,只保留to。(1)—Wouldyouliketogowithus?—I’mgladto,butIhavetofinishmyhomework.(2)Don’ttellmethenameofthesailorifyoudon’twantto.(3)—Haveyoueverbeentotheseaside?—No,wecan’taffordto.在usedto,oughtto,haveto,wouldlike/loveto,wishto,begoingto等结构中,常常省略to后面的动词原形。(1)Theydonotvisittheirparentsasmuchasthey,oughtto.(2)Hedoesn’tgetupearlyasheusedto.(3)I’llhanditinifIhaveto.(4)—Wouldyouliketocometonight?—I’dloveto.Tell,warn,order,advise,ask等动词的宾语后面接动词不定式做宾语补足语时,可以省略to后面的动词原形。(1)HewantedtoswimacrosstheriverbutIwarnedhimnotto.(2)Theboywantedtoplayfootballinthestreet,buthismothertoldhimnotto.三.巩固练习1._____,Iwillhelpyouwithyourwork.A.IfIampossibleB.IfitpossibleC.IfpossibleD.Possible2.—Doyoufollowme?—Yes,_____.A.itisgoodB.IwillC.perfectlyD.verygood3.—Howareyougettingonwithyourwork?—Oh,I’msorry.Thingsaren’tgoingsowellas_____.A.plansB.planningC.plannedD.toplan,4.—Areyouateacher? —No,butI_____.Iworkedinamiddleschoolforthreeyears.A.amB.willC.doD.was5.—Howmanypoorcountieswilltherebeinourprovinceby2010? —Therewillbeonlyafew,if_____.A.muchB.someC.anyD.many6.—Whydidn’tyoucometoMike’sbirthdaypartyyesterday? —Well,I_____,butIforgotit.A.shouldB.mustC.shouldhaveD.musthave7.Doctorshavesaidthatasmanyas50%ofpatientsdon’ttakemedicine_____.A.likedirectedB.tobedirectedC.asdirectedD.sothatdirected四.答案CCCDCCC
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