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湖南省永州市八县2021届高三12月联考英语试题 Word版含解析
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祁阳、宁远、道县、东安、新田、蓝山、江华、江永八县2021届高三12月联考英语试卷(新高考)本试题卷共8页。全卷满分150分。考试用时120分钟。注意事项:1.答题前,先将自己的姓名、考号等填写在试题卷和答题卡上,并将准考证号条形码粘贴在答题卡上的指定位置。2.选择题的作答:选出每小题答案后,用2B铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑,写在试题卷、草稿纸和答题卡上的非答题区域均无效。3.非选择题的作答:用签字笔直接写在答题卡上对应的答题区域内。写在试题卷、草稿纸和答题卡上的非答题区域均无效。4.考试结束后,请将本试题卷和答题卡一并上交。第一部分听力(共两节,满分30分)第一节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分)听下面5段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。1.Whatdoesthemanmean?A.Hedoesn'tplantomove.B.Hewillmoveoutofhisoldhouse.C.Hewillmoveintohisoldhouse.2.Whatdoweknowaboutthewoman?A.Sheisunwillingtogotowork.B.Shewilltakethebooktothelibrary.C.Sheisbusytoday.3.Whatarethetwospeakersdoing?A.Hikingupahill.B.Climbingstairs.C.Discussingatrip.4.Howmuchwillthemanpayfortwopairsofshoes?A.$36.B.$20.C.$12.5.Whatwillthewomando?,A.Shewillhavedinnerathome.B.Shecannotgotothecinema.C.Shewillhavedinnerwiththeman.第二节(共15小题;每小题1.5分,满分22.5分)听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。听第6段材料,回答第6、7题。6.Whatisthewomandoing?A.Workingasapainter.B.Purchasingwhatsheneeds.C.Planningtopaintherownbedroom.7.Whatdoesthemanadvisethewomantodo?A.Hireapainter.B.Buythepaint.C.Readtheinstructions.听第7段材料,回答第8至10题。8.Whatcanthemandoinsidethebus?A.Cookandeat.B.Haveagoodsleep.C.Takeashower.9.Howlonginadvancecanthemanbookthetraveling?A.Threemonths.B.Twomonths.C.Onemonth.10.Whatisthepurposeoftheman'scalling?A.Tobookaticket.B.Togivesomedetails.C.Toaskforinformation.听第8段材料,回答第11至13题。11.Whywasthemanlateforwork?A.Hestayeduplate.B.Thesubwaywasdelayed.C.Therewasatrafficjam.12.What'stherelationshipbetweenthetwospeakers?A.Colleagues.B.Roommates.C.Classmates.13.Howdoesthewomanknowsomuchaboutthecarpooling?,A.Sheisanagentofit.B.Shetrieditbefore.C.Shereadaboutitlastweek.听第9段材料,回答第14至16题。14.Whatiswrongwiththeman?A.Heisallergictomangoes.B.Heisinacaraccident.C.Hehasaheartattack.15.Wherearethespeakersatfirst?A.Inthepark.B.Atarestaurant.C.Inthehospital.16.Whatdoweknowaboutthewoman?A.Shehasbeenallergicbefore.B.Sheorderedamilkshake.C.Shedoesn'tlikestudy.听第10段材料,回答第17至20题。17.Whatisthespeakertalkingabout?A.Newtechnology.B.Hi-techmachines.C.Seadiving.18.Whocangetaroundlikefishintheseaaccordingtothespeaker?A.Thedivers.B.Therobots.C.Thescientists.19.Whathelpsscientistsmakedecisionsimmediately?A.Today'sdivingsuits.B.Newwirelesstechnology.C.Thenewestvehicles.20.Whatisthefunctionoftheunderwaterhydrophones?A.Theymaketheoceanworldsilent.B.Theycanhelppredicttheearthquake.C.Theycanreceiveandrecordoceansounds.第二部分阅读(共两节,满分50分)第一节(共15小题;每小题2.5分,满分37.5分),阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出最佳选项。ANationalparksarethelargestclassroomswithdifferentteachingresources.TakealookatwhatGrandCanyonNationalParkhastooffer.EcologyType:GuestSpeakersGradeLevel:UpperElementary(ThirdGradethroughFifthGrade)Subjects:ScienceLength:1hourHands-onlearningemphasizesadaptions,ecologicalprinciples,andplantandanimalinterrelationships.Activitiesvarybygradelevel.TrailofTimeType:FieldTripsGradeLevel:HighSchool(NinthGradethroughTwelfthGrade)Subjects:ScienceLength:2.5hours,9:00-11:30a.m.or1:00-3:30p.m.Walkingdistance:approximately1.5milesonpavedtrailsWalkingthepark'sGeologicalTrailofTime,studentslearnhowactivegeologicprocessessuchasplatemovementresultinthecyclingofsurfacematerialsandchangesinlandscapesovertime.HelpingEachOtherType:LessonPlanGradeLevel:LowerElementary(Pre-KthroughSecondGrade)Subjects:ScienceThesurvivalofdifferentspeciesdependsontwospecieshelpingeachother.Thecomplexrelationshipswithinonehabitatcanbehurtwhenoneofthespeciesisthreatenedoroneofthespeciesbecomesextinct.AskaRangerType:DistanceLearningGradeLevel:UpperElementary(ThirdGradethroughFifthGrade),Subjects:Math,Science,SocialStudiesLength:05-1hourItprovidesanopportunityforyourclassroomtointeractwithaparkranger(护林员)throughaliveandinteractivelessonviatheInternet.Studentscandiscusswiththerangertheecology,geology,andhumanhistory,aswellaslifeandworkinthenationalpark.Can'tfindwhatyouarelookingfor?Clickhereformoreinformation.1.Whichprogramisphysicallydemanding?A.Ecology.B.TrailofTime.C.HelpingEachOther.D.AskaRanger.2.Whichofthefollowingsubjectsareincludedintheteachingresources?A.Ecologyandart.B.Mathandliterature.C.Scienceandmath.D.Historyandtechnology.3.Wherecanyoufindthetext?A.Amagazineforschoolteachers.B.Awebsiteintroducingnationalparks.C.AbrochureforGrandCanyonNationalPark.D.Areportonteachingresources.【答案】1.B2.C3.B【解析】本文是应用文。介绍了大峡谷国家公园可提供的四种不同教学资源。【1题详解】推理判断题。根据TrailofTime部分的中“Length:2.5hours,9:00-11:30a.m.or1:00-3:30p.m.(时长:2.5小时,上午9:00-11:30或下午1:00-3:30。)”和“Walkingdistance:approximately1.5milesonpavedtrails(步行距离:在铺好的小路上大约1.5英里)”可知,Length两个半小时和Walkingdistance大约1.5英里可知,TrailofTime项目对体力有要求。故选B。【2题详解】细节理解题。根据“Subjects:Science”和“Subjects:Math,Science,SocialStudies”可知,课程包括科学和数学。故选C。【3题详解】,细节理解题。根据最后一段最后一句“Clickhereformoreinformation.(点击这里了解更多信息。)”可知,本文出处是网站。故选B。BJohnJamesAudubonwascuriousaboutsomebirdshesawnearhisMillGrovehomeintheearly1800s.Hecaughtafewofthem,tiedathinsilverstringtotheirlegs,andreleasedthem.Thenextyear,thebirdsreturned.Audubonrealizedthathisfeatheredneighborsreturnedtothesamenestingspoteachyear.Peoplehadtriedattachingbandstobirds'legsbeforeAudubon'sexperiment.Morethan2,000yearsago,Romeofficerssentmessagesattachedtobirdstokeeptheirarmiesinformed.Audubon'sexperiment,however,isthefirstexampleofbandingusedtolearnmoreaboutthemovementsofthewildbirdsinNorthAmerica.Today,onlytrainedscientistsarepermittedtobandbirds.AnorganizationknownastheBirdBandingLaboratory(BBL)suppliesofficialaluminumbands.Eachbandisstampedwithauniqueidentificationnumber.Researcherscollectinformationaboutbandedbird'sspecies,weight,sex,age,wingspanandgeneralhealth.ThatinformationissharedwiththeBBL.Moderntechnologyhastakenbirdbandingtoanewlevel.Today,transmitters(发射器)thatcomeinallkindsofsizesareused.Theycanbeattachedtotheleg,theneck,theback,orevenabird'sfeathers.Researcherscanlearnmanythingsfromabandedbird,suchaspatternsinnesting,feedingandmigration.Bandedinformationalsogivesresearchersasenseofthegeneralhealthofagroupofbirds.Andinformationaboutthegeneralhealthofbirdshelpsscientistsunderstandthegeneralhealthoftheenvironment,whichisgoodforhumanstoo.4.WhatdoweknowaboutJohnJamesAudubon?A.Hestudiedbirds.B.Heraisedmanybirds.C.Hesentmessagesusingbirds.D.Hewasthefirsttotieastringtowildbirds'legs.5.Whatdoestheunderlinedword"stamped"inParagraph3mean?A.filledB.combinedC.chargedD.marked,6.Whatcanweinferfromthetechnologyofbandingbirds?A.BBLtiedthebandstothebirds.B.IthasadvancedgreatlynowadaysC.Itonceprovidedmoreinformation.D.Transmitterscouldbeputintothebirds'body7.Whatisthelastparagraphmainlyabout?A.Thewaysofbandingbirds.B.Thedevelopmentofbandingbirds.C.Thescientificvalueofbandedbirds.D.Theinfluenceofbandingbirdsonhumans.【答案】4.A5.D6.B7.C【解析】本文是说明文。介绍了人类通过追踪鸟来了解鸟的生活习性的研究状况。【4题详解】推理判断题。根据第一段“Hecaughtafewofthem,tiedathinsilverstringtotheirlegs,andreleasedthem.Thenextyear,thebirdsreturned.Audubonrealizedthathisfeatheredneighborsreturnedtothesamenestingspoteachyear.(他抓了几个,在它们腿上绑了一根细银绳,然后放了它们。第二年,鸟儿又回来了。Audubon意识到,他那些长着羽毛的邻居们每年都会回到同一个筑巢地点。)”可推知,JohnJamesAudubon研究这些鸟类。故选A。【5题详解】词义猜测题。根据划线单词后一句“Researcherscollectinformationaboutbandedbird'sspecies,weight,sex,age,wingspanandgeneralhealth.(研究人员收集关于带状鸟的种类、体重、性别、年龄、翼展和一般健康状况的信息。)”可推知,此处划线单词"stamped"的意思是“作标志”,由此可知,划线单词所在句句意为“每个带子上都印有唯一的识别号。”bemarkedwith做记号。故选D。【6题详解】细节理解题。根据第四段“Moderntechnologyhastakenbirdbandingtoanewlevel.(现代鸟类的捆扎技术达到了一个新的水平。)”可知,鸟类信息追踪带进步很大。故选B。【7题详解】主旨大意题。根据“Researcherscanlearnmanythingsfromabandedbird,suchaspatternsin,nesting,feedingandmigration.Bandedinformationalsogivesresearchersasenseofthegeneralhealthofagroupofbirds.Andinformationaboutthegeneralhealthofbirdshelpsscientistsunderstandthegeneralhealthoftheenvironment,whichisgoodforhumanstoo.(研究人员可以从带有鸟类跟踪带的鸟类身上学到很多东西,比如筑巢、进食和迁徙的模式。研究人员对鸟类群体的整体健康状况也有了一定的了解。关于鸟类总体健康的信息有助于科学家了解环境的总体健康状况,这对人类也有好处。)”得知,最后一段主要讲述带有鸟类跟踪带的鸟类的研究价值。故选C。CIngeometry,architectureandart,auniquenumberisbelievedtobethesecrettoperfection.Thatisthegoldenratio,or1:1.618,amathematicalproportion.Thefirstrecordedmentionofthegoldenratioinhistorydatesbackto300BC.TheGreekmathematicianEuclidcalleditthe"extremeratio".Itsactualvalueis1.6180339887498484820…Butit'susuallyroundedupto1.618.Atthebeginningofthe20thcentury,theAmericanmathematicianMarkBarrgaveitthenamephi,pronouncedfee,aftertheGreeksculptorPhidias.Thegoldenratioexistswhenalineisdividedintotwopartsandthelongersection(a)dividedbythesmallersection(b)isequaltotheentirelengthoftheline(a+b)dividedbythelongersection(a).Onceyoustarttonoticethegoldenratio,youwillseeiteverywhere.LeonardodaVinciisoftenassociatedwiththegoldenratio.Hismostfamouspainting,theMonaLisa,seemstocontainseveralexamplesofthisgeometricproportion.StephenSilver,whohasworkedforbigstudiossuchasDisney,WarnerBrothersandSonyPicturesAnimation,hasdesignedthecharactersforpopularanimatedtelevisionshowssuchasKimPossibleandDannyPhantom.Hesharesthesecretofhowtocreateperfectdesigns."Characterswithanevendesignarelikelytolackmovement,"hesays."Theyfeelordinaryandquicklyloseappeal.”Instead,heappliesthegoldenratiotobreakupproportionstocreate"morecontrastandvariationinshape",whichmakeshischaracterscomealive.Thegoldenratiopreventshimdesigningcharactersthataretooevenlyspaced.Silverisn'ttheonlygraphicartistwhothinksthegoldenratioisspecial.GoldengeometrycanbefoundinthePepsi,Twitter,andDisneylogos.Nexttimeyoudrawapictureordesignalogo,youcantryitout!,8.Whonamedthegoldenratiophi?A.EuclidB.MarkBarr.C.Phidias.D.LeonardodaVinci.9.Whichofthefollowingbestdescribesthegoldenratio?A.a/b=(a+b)/aB.a/b=a/(a+b)C.a/b=b/(a+b)D.a/b=(a+b)/b10.What'sSilver'sattitudetothegoldenratio?A.Skeptical.B.CautiousC.PositiveD.Negative.11.Whatisthetextmainlyabout?A.ThesecrettotheperfectionB.Thegoldenratiointheart.C.Thefamouscharacterdesigner.D.Howtobeafamousartist.【答案】8.B9.A10.C11.B【解析】本文是说明文。文章主要介绍了黄金比例,介绍了其历史,如何得到黄金比例以及其对艺术设计的影响。【8题详解】细节理解题。根据第二段“Atthebeginningofthe20thcentury,theAmericanmathematicianMarkBarrgaveitthenamephi,pronouncedfee,aftertheGreeksculptorPhidias.(20世纪初,美国数学家MarkBarr以希腊雕塑家菲迪亚斯的名字将其命名为phi,发音为fee)”可知,是MarkBarr给黄金比例命名的。故选B。【9题详解】细节理解题。根据第三段“Thegoldenratioexistswhenalineisdividedintotwopartsandthelongersection(a)dividedbythesmallersection(b)isequaltotheentirelengthoftheline(a+b)dividedbythelongersection(a).(当一条线被分成两部分,较长部分a除以较短部分b等于整条线a+b除以较长部分a时,黄金比例就存在了)”得出公式。可知,a/b=(a+b)/a最好地描述了黄金比例。故选A。【10题详解】推理判断题。根据第五段中“Instead,heappliesthegoldenratiotobreakupproportionstocreate"morecontrastandvariationinshape",whichmakeshischaracterscomealive.Thegoldenratio,preventshimdesigningcharactersthataretooevenlyspaced.(相反,他运用黄金比例来打破比例,创造“更多的对比和变化的形状”,使他的角色活了起来。黄金比例可以防止他设计的角色间距太均匀)”可知Silver利用黄金比例创造出更生动的角色,由此推断出他对黄金比例持赞同的态度。故选C。【11题详解】主旨大意题。根据第一段“Ingeometry,architectureandart,auniquenumberisbelievedtobethesecrettoperfection.Thatisthegoldenratio,or1:1.618,amathematicalproportion.(在几何学、建筑学和艺术中,一个独特的数字被认为是完美的秘密。这就是黄金比例,或者1:1.618,一个数学比例)”结合本文先简要介绍了黄金比例,接着以达芬奇和著名卡通人物设计师StephenSilver为例说明了他们在艺术创作中运用了黄金比例。可知,文章的主要内容是艺术中的黄金比例。故选B。DNeedarecipeandallofitsingredientsdelivereddirectlytoyourdoor?WantTraderJoe'sCookieButterwithoutastorenearby?EagertotakeadvantageofLaborDaysaleswhileonvacation?Noworries.Allthesecanbedonewithjustafewclicks.TwodecadessincethefounderofZapposfirstputforwardtheideaofsellingshoesviatheInternetandstruggledtoconvinceinvestors(投资人),e-commerce,oronlineshopping,hastakenover.Ifthere'sonethingZapposhastaughtus,it'sthatcustomerexperiencematters.Theretailgiantgotaheadbyencouragingcustomerstoordermultiplesizesofthesameproduct,andthenprovidingafreeandeasywaytoreturnwhateverdidn'tfit.Today,chatbotsandmobileappsallowonlineretailerstoensurecustomersuccess.Machinelearningtechnologiesalsoprovidepersonalizedrecommendationsbasedonauser'ssearchhistory.Andovernightdeliveryhasbecomecommonplace.Evenso,someaspectsofthein-storeexperiencegomissingwhenshoppinginthedigitalworld.Fortunately,wehavelivecommerce.Bycombininge-commercewithlivestreaming,livecommercehelpsimproveparticipation,bridgethegapbetweencustomersandproducts,drivesales,and,incaseswherebiddingisinvolved,increasetheaveragesalesprice.ThistrendcontrolsthemarketinChina.Taobao,theworld'sbiggeste-commercewebsite,givesthepowertofarmers,businessowners,andself-employedentrepreneurswithconsumer-to-consumerlivestreaming.SuccessfulinfluencersonTaobaorisetocelebrity-likestatus,,helpingpromotetheshoppingexperience.Beyondjustgeneratingfans,topsellerslikeLiJiaqiandWeiyabringhomeseriousmoneyDanielleBailey,managingvicepresidentofintelligencefirm12Inc..onceputit,"Chinausedtobethoughtofasacopycat…butnowmorewesterntechandretailleadersarebeinginspiredbytheall-channelretail,socialcommerce,andmobilecommerceinnovationsinChina.”12.Whatisthepurposeofthefirstparagraph?A.Toarousereaders'interestinthetopicofthetext.B.Toattractpeople'sattentiontolivecommerceC.Tosuggestpeopleneedhelpfromhightechnology.D.Toshowit'seasytogetthingsdonewithacomputer.13.InwhataspectdidZapposdobetterthanotherretailcompanies?A.Itofferedfastfreereturnshipping.B.Itprovidedshoesthatfitacustomerbest.C.Itstressedthefulfillmentofconsumers'needs.D.Itreceivedlargeamountsofmoneyfrominvestors.14.Whatisthemaindifferencebetweenlivecommerceande-commerce?A.Bignamesinlivecommercearemorefamous.B.TopsellersinlivecommercemakemoremoneyC.E-commerceinvolveslessin-personexperienceD.E-commerceincludesasmallerrangeofpeople.15.WhatcanweinferfromDanielleBailey'swords?A.Chinacopieswhatothercountriesdo.B.Westernworldfallsbehindinbusiness.C.ChinaisthemostcreativecountryintheworldD.Chinaistakingtheleadinlivestreamingbusiness.【答案】12.A13.C14.C15.D【解析】本文是说明文。介绍了电商从单纯网上购物到直播带货的发展,及其在中国的情况。【12题详解】,推理判断题。根据首段“Needarecipeandallofitsingredientsdelivereddirectlytoyourdoor?WantTraderJoe'sCookieButterwithoutastorenearby?EagertotakeadvantageofLaborDaysaleswhileonvacation?Noworries.”(需要一份食谱和所有食材直接送到你的家门口吗?想在附近没有商店的TraderJoe的饼干黄油吗?渴望在度假时利用劳动节促销?不用担心。所有这些都可以完成只需点击几下。)可知,作者连续提出三个问题,旨在引起读者对本文的兴趣。故选A。【13题详解】细节理解题。根据第二段第二句“Ifthere'sonethingZapposhastaughtus,it'sthatcustomerexperiencematters.”(如果说Zappos教会了我们什么的话,那就是客户体验很重要。)可知,Zappos教给我们的事情是客户体验很重要。再根据第二段第三句“Theretailgiantgotaheadbyencouragingcustomerstoordermultiplesizesofthesameproduct,andthenprovidingafreeandeasywaytoreturnwhateverdidn'tfit.”(这家零售巨头领先一步,鼓励顾客订购同一种产品的多种尺寸,然后提供免费和简便的方式退回不合适的产品。)可知,这体现了Zappos公司重视客户体验的具体措施,强调满足消费者的需求。故选C。【14题详解】细节理解题。根据第四段“Bycombininge-commercewithlivestreaming,livecommercehelpsimproveparticipation,bridgethegapbetweencustomersandproducts,drivesales,and,incaseswherebiddingisinvolved,increasetheaveragesalesprice.”(通过将电子商务与直播相结合,直播商务有助于提高参与,缩小客户与产品之间的差距,推动销售,在涉及招标的情况下,提高平均销售价格。)可知,livecommerce电商直播结合了e-commerce电子商务和livestreaming直播,缩小了客户和产品之间的距离,使二者关系更加密切,反之,单纯的e-commerce就缺少当面的交流。故选C。【15题详解】推理判断题。根据最后一段“DanielleBailey,managingvicepresidentofintelligencefirm12Inc..onceputit,"Chinausedtobethoughtofasacopycat…butnowmorewesterntechandretailleadersarebeinginspiredbytheall-channelretail,socialcommerce,andmobilecommerceinnovationsinChina.”(DanielleBailey,情报公司12Inc.的执行副总裁。他曾经说过:“中国过去被认为是一个模仿者……但现在更多的西方科技和零售领袖正受到中国全渠道零售、社交商务和移动商务创新的启发。”)DanielleBailey,说的话可知,之前中国被认为模仿别国,而现在,西方科技和零售产业的领导者正在受到中国全渠道零售、社交电商和移动电商的创新的启发。故选D。第二节(共5小题;每小题2.5分,满分12.5分)阅读下面短文,从短文后的选项中选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。Whengerms,suchasbacteriaorviruses,invadethebody,theyattackandmultiply.____16____Theimmunesystemusesseveraltoolstofightinfection(感染).Bloodcontainsredbloodcells,forcarryingoxygentotissuesandorgans,andwhiteorimmunecells,forfightinginfection.Thesewhitecellsconsistprimarilyofmacrophages(巨噬细胞),BcellsandTcells.Macrophagesswallowupanddigestgerms,plusdeadanddyingcells.Theyleavebehindpartsoftheinvadinggermscalledantigens(抗原).____17____Bcellsaredefensivewhitebloodcellswhichproduceantibodies.Tcellsarealsodefensivewhitebloodcells.Theyattackcellsinthebodythathavealreadybeeninfected.Thefirsttimethebodycomesacrossagerm,itcantakeseveraldaystomakeanduseallthegermfightingtoolsneededtogetovertheinfection.Aftertheinfection,theimmunesystemrememberswhatislearnedabouthowtoprotectthebodyagainstthatdisease.___18___Theyhelpdevelopimmunitybyimitatinganinfection.Thistypeofinfection,however,almostnevercausesillness,butitdoescausetheimmunesystemtoproduceTcellsandantibodies.Sometimes,aftergettingavaccine(疫苗),theimitationinfectioncancauseminorsymptoms.Forinstance,afever.___19___Oncetheimitationinfectiongoesaway,thebodyisleftwithasupplyofdefensivecellsthatwillrememberhowtofindthatdiseaseinthefuture.____20____Therefore,itispossiblethatapersoninfectedwiththediseasejustbeforeorjustaftervaccinationcoulddevelopsymptomsandgetadisease,becausethevaccinehasnothadenoughtimetoprovideprotection.A.Vaccinesbasicallyworkthesameway.B.Thisinvasion,calledaninfection,iswhatcausesillness.C.Vaccinespreventdiseasesthatcanbedangerous,orevendeadlyD.Scientiststakemanydifferentapproachestodevelopingvaccines.E.Thebodyidentifiesthemasdangersandexcitesantibodiestoattackthem.F.Suchminorsymptomsarenormalandshouldbeexpectedasthebodybuildsimmunity.,G.However,ittypicallytakesafewweeksforthebodytoproducethosedefensivecellsaftervaccination.【答案】16.B17.E18.A19.F20.G【解析】本文是说明文。介绍了人体免疫系统和疫苗是如何工作的。【16题详解】根据前一句“Whengerms,suchasbacteriaorviruses,invadethebody,theyattackandmultiply.(当细菌或病毒等细菌侵入人体时,它们就会攻击并繁殖。)”和空后“Theimmunesystemusesseveraltoolstofightinfection(感染)(免疫系统使用几种工具来对抗感染。)”可知,空处承接上一句讲述细菌的入侵;根据选项可知,选项B.Thisinvasion,calledaninfection,iswhatcausesillness.(这种入侵被称为感染,是导致疾病的原因。)承上启下,符合题意,此处infection与下文“fightinfection”呼应。故选B。【17题详解】根据空前“Macrophagesswallowupanddigestgerms,plusdeadanddyingcells.Theyleavebehindpartsoftheinvadinggermscalledantigens(抗原).(巨噬细胞吞噬和消化细菌,以及死亡和垂死的细胞。它们留下了被称为抗原的入侵细菌的部分。)和后文描述可知,本段介绍巨噬细胞、B细胞和T细胞的作用,前三句介绍的是巨噬细胞。E选项Thebodyidentifiesthemasdangersandexcitesantibodiestoattackthem.(身体将它们视为危险,并激发抗体来攻击它们。)中的them指的是上文提到的antigens抗原,符合题意。故选E。【18题详解】根据文章结构可知,上文讲的是免疫系统如何工作,下文讲疫苗工作原理,故A选项为此处的最佳衔接。“Theyhelpdevelopimmunitybyimitatinganinfection.(它们通过模仿感染来帮助培养免疫力。)”中的“They”指的是Vaccines疫苗。故选A。【19题详解】根据空前“Sometimes,aftergettingavaccine(疫苗),theimitationinfectioncancauseminorsymptoms.(有时,接种疫苗后,模仿感染会引起轻微的症状。)“可知,空处进一步阐述疫苗可能引发的轻微症状,结合选项可知,选项F.Suchminorsymptomsarenormalandshouldbeexpectedasthebodybuildsimmunity.(这种轻微的症状是正常的,应该在身体建立免疫力的时候出现。)承接前一句,符合题意。minorsymptoms.对应Suchminorsymptoms。故选F。【20题详解】,根据空后“Therefore,itispossiblethatapersoninfectedwiththediseasejustbeforeorjustaftervaccinationcoulddevelopsymptomsandgetadisease,becausethevaccinehasnothadenoughtimetoprovideprotection.(因此,由于疫苗没有足够的时间提供保护,在接种疫苗之前或之后感染疾病的人可能会出现症状并患病。)“可知,空处与后文形成因果关系,结合选项可知,选项G.However,ittypicallytakesafewweeksforthebodytoproducethosedefensivecellsaftervaccination.(然而,接种疫苗后,身体通常需要几周的时间才能产生这些防御细胞。)符合题意。故选G。第三部分语言运用(共两节,满分30分)第一节(共15小题;每小题1分,满分15分)阅读下面短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。Allparentsknowhowsaditisfortheirchildrentolosetheirfavoritetoys.Yetsometimes____21____happen.That'sexactlywhathappenedtoJuniperwho____22____herfavoritetoydognamedRuffatahotel.However,thegirlwasn't____23____forlong,asthetoyquicklyfounditswaybacktoherina(n)____24____way.Earlierthismonth,Juniper'smom,Allison,____25____thestoryabouther2-year-olddaughterlosingandgettingRuffontheInternet.Thetoywasaccidentallyleftbehindata(n)____26____"Weknewweleftitatthehotelbutwewereinahurryto____27____theairportthatmorning,"Allisonsaid.Juniper____28____whensherealizedherfavoritetoywasnolongerwithher,sothemom____29____tocallthehotelandaskiftheyhadseenthetoy."Theysaidtheywouldcheckrightawayandletusknowifanyone____30____him,"themothersaid.ToAllison's____31____,afewdayslater,thetoywasdeliveredbacktoJuniper,butthatwasn'tall.TheemployeesofthehotelmadesurethatRuffwouldhaveagood____32____whilehewasawayfromJuniper,sotheytook____33____ofallthethingshedidduringhisstayatthehotel.Allisonsaidthatthefamilywere____34____whenRuffwasreturnedtothem.Thelittlegirlwas____35____movedtoseehertoyback."Juniperlaughedloudlywhenseeinghertoyandthoselovelyphotos.Welovedthephotos!"21.A.storiesB.messagesC.disastersD.accidents22.A.lostB.boughtC.forgotD.,abandoned23.A.badB.upsetC.wellD.wrong24.A.boringB.frighteningC.amazingD.embarrassing25.A.viewedB.editedC.choseD.posted26.A.restaurantB.hotelC.taxiD.airport27.A.breakintoB.searchforC.leaveforD.departfrom28.A.criedB.whisperedC.panickedD.jumped29.A.decidedB.hesitatedC.hatedD.expected30.A.soldB.spottedC.sweptD.approached31.A.angerB.disappointmentC.surpriseD.sorrow32.A.nightB.timeC.planD.idea33.A.notesB.videosC.lessonsD.photographs34.A.delightedB.puzzledC.madD.calm35.A.particularlyB.hardlyC.normallyD.peacefully【答案】21.D22.A23.B24.C25.D26.B27.C28.A29.A30.B31.C32.B33.D34.A35.A【解析】本文是记叙文。文章讲述了一家宾馆的工作人员及时送还了一位小姑娘Juniper遗落在宾馆的玩具狗Ruff的故事。【21题详解】考查名词词义辨析。句意:但有时也会发生意外。A.stories故事;B.messages信息;C.disasters灾难;D.accidents意外。根据上文“theirchildrentolosetheirfavoritetoys”以及后文Juniper丢失了玩具。根据下文“However,thegirlwasn't    3    forlong,asthetoyquicklyfounditswaybacktoherina(n)    4    ,way.”可知,玩具很快就以一种令人惊讶的方式回到了她的身边,但有时也会发生意外。故选D。【22题详解】考查动词词义辨析。句意:这正是发生在Juniper身上的事情,她在一家酒店丢失了她最喜欢的玩具狗Ruff。A.lost失去;B.bought购买;C.forgot忘记;D.abandoned抛弃。根据后文“Thetoywasaccidentallyleftbehind”可知Juniper丢失了喜爱的玩具狗。故选A。【23题详解】考查形容词词义辨析。句意:然而,女孩并没有难过太久,因为玩具很快就以一种令人惊讶的方式回到了她的身边。A.bad坏的;B.upset沮丧的;C.well良好的;D.wrong错误的。根据上文“howsaditisfortheirchildrentolosetheirfavoritetoys”孩子丢失了玩具会难过。根据下文“asthetoyquicklyfounditswaybacktoherina(n)    4    way.”可知,女孩并没有难过太久。故选B。【24题详解】考查形容词词义辨析。句意:然而,女孩并没有难过太久,因为玩具很快就以一种令人惊讶的方式回到了她的身边。A.boring无聊的;B.frightening可怕的;C.amazing惊人的;D.embarrassing尴尬的。结合后文酒店人员找回了玩具,还拍了一系列照片,可知玩具以一种令人惊讶的方式回到了Juniper的身边。故选C。【25题详解】考查动词词义辨析。句意:这个月早些时候,Juniper的妈妈Allison在网上发布了她两岁女儿丢失了又找回Ruff的故事。A.viewed观察;B.edited编辑;C.chose选择;D.posted发帖。根据后文“ontheInternet”可知是在网上发帖。故选D。【26题详解】考查名词词义辨析。句意:玩具不小心落在了一家旅馆里。“A.restaurant餐厅;B.hotel旅馆;C.taxi出租车;D.airport机场。根据后文“Weknewweleftitatthehotel”可知玩具丢在了旅馆里。故选B。【27题详解】考查动词短语辨析。句意:我们知道我们把它落在了旅馆里,但那天早上我们急着要赶去机场,”艾莉森说。A.breakinto闯入;B.searchfor寻找;C.leavefor动身去;D.departfrom离开。根据前文“inahurry”以及后文“theairport”可知急着去机场。故选C。【28题详解】考查动词词义辨析。句意:Juniper,发现心爱的玩具不在身边时哭了,所以妈妈决定打电话给酒店,问他们有没有看到玩具。A.cried哭泣;B.whispered低语;C.panicked使恐慌;D.jumped跳跃。对应第一段中“howsaditisfortheirchildrentolosetheirfavoritetoys”玩具丢了,孩子们会难过哭泣。故选A。【29题详解】考查动词词义辨析。句意:Juniper发现心爱玩具不在身边时哭了,所以妈妈决定打电话给酒店,问他们有没有看到玩具。A.decided决定;B.hesitated犹豫;C.hated讨厌;D.expected期待。根据后文“tocallthehotelandaskiftheyhadseenthetoy”可知Allison决定给旅馆打电话,询问工作人员有没有看到玩具。故选A。【30题详解】考查动词词义辨析。句意:这位母亲说:“他们说他们会马上检查,如果有人发现了他,就告诉我们。”A.sold出售;B.spotted发现;C.swept扫除;D.approached靠近。结合前后文“letusknowifanyone…him”可知,后文him指的是Ruff,故指发现Ruff就告诉他们。故选B。【31题详解】考查名词词义辨析。句意:令Allison惊讶的是,几天后,玩具被交还给了Juniper,但这还不是全部。A.anger愤怒;B.disappointment失望;C.surprise惊讶;D.sorrow悲伤。根据前文“founditswaybacktoherina(n)amazingway.”可知,Allison很惊讶,玩具过了几天就回到了Juniper身边。故选C。【32题详解】考查名词词义辨析。句意:酒店员工确保Ruff在离开Juniper期间,会玩的愉快,所以他们拍下了他在酒店逗留期间做的所有事情。A.night夜晚;B.time时间;C.plan计划;D.idea想法。结合上文“Ruffwouldhaveagood”可知指玩的愉快,短语为haveagoodtime。故选B。【33题详解】考查名词词义辨析。句意:酒店的员工确保Ruff在离开Juniper期间,会玩的愉快,所以他们拍下了他在酒店逗留期间做的所有事情。A.notes笔记;B.videos视频;C.lessons课程;D.photographs照片。对应后文“thoselovelyphotos”可知员工给Ruff拍了照。故选D。【34题详解】考查形容词词义辨析。句意:Allison说,当Ruff被还给他们时,一家人都很高兴。A.delighted高兴的;B.puzzled困惑的;C.mad疯狂的;D.calm平静的。根据后文“whenRuffwasreturned,tothem”可知玩具被找回,一家人很高兴。故选A。【35题详解】考查副词词义辨析。句意:看到她的玩具回来,小女孩特别感动。A.particularly特别;B.hardly几乎不;C.normally正常地;D.peacefully平静地。结合后文“movedtoseehertoyback”可知玩具被找回,小女孩特别感动。故选A。第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分)阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。Pan,asilversmith(银匠)inMaliaovillageinGuizhouProvinceusedtodreamofpeopleliving____36____abundantlifeinhisvillage,wherenobodyhastoworkfarawayfromhomeandcustomersgothereforbeautifulsilverjewellery.Nowhisdreamhascometrue.Maliaovillageisfamousforitssilverjewellery.Infact,Miaosilverjewellery____37____(list)asNationalIntangibleCulturalHeritagein2006.Butwithcheaper,machine-producedtrinkets(小首饰)____38____(rule)themarket,theycouldn'trelyontheoldtechniquetosurvive.Atthattime,mostpeopleinthevillagelivedunderthepovertyline,____39____meanstheycouldsimplyaffordfoodand____40____(base)clothing,butseldompurchasethingslikebicyclesortelevisions.Somanyvillagerslefttheirhometown____41____(hopeless).Butin2019,thegovernmentallocated580,000yuanofpovertyfundstosetuptheSilverwareWorkshopofMaliaoVillage,helpingMaliaovillagersfightpoverty____42____theirowncraft.Sincethatyear,mostyoungcraftsmen____43____(return)totheirhometownandfoundabrightfuture.Withthehelpofthegovernment'sworkshop.theylearnedthe____44____(late)fashiontrendsandhowtomeetclients'various____45____(request).Insteadofholdingontooldideasandexistingdesign,villagersenhancedtheirskillsandmadetheirproductscustomized.【答案】36.an37.waslisted38.ruling39.which40.basic41.hopelessly42.with43.havereturned44.latest45.requests【解析】这是一篇记叙文。文章叙述了贵州麻料村,村农民在政府的帮助下,重新让传统手工制作辉煌的故事。【36题详解】考查冠词。句意潘文石是贵州省麻寮村的银匠,他曾经梦想着村里的人过着富足的生活,没有人需要离家很远的地方工作,顾客们都到那里去买漂亮的银饰。life表示“生活”时,若指某种方式的生活,为可数名词,liveanabundantlife“过着富足的生活”,且abundant以元音音素开头,故填an。【37题详解】考查动词时态和语态。句意:事实上,苗族银饰早在2006年就被列为国家级非物质文化遗产。分析句子可知,list是谓语动词,与主语jewellery是被动关系,根据时间状语in2006可知,用一般过去时的被动语态:was/weredone,主语是第三人称单数,故填waslisted。【38题详解】考查非谓语动词。句意:但便宜,机器生产的小饰品统治着市场,他们不用依靠旧的技术才能生存。分析句子可知,此处是with的复合结构,其构成为:with+宾语+宾语补足语,rule是宾语补足语,与宾语trinkets是主动关系,用现在分词,故填ruling。【39题详解】考查定语从句。句意:当时,村里的大多数人生活在贫困线以下,这意味着他们只买得起食物和基本的衣服,但很少购买自行车或电视等东西。分析句子结构可知,空处需用关系词引导非限制性定语从句,先行词是前面的句子,关系词在定语从句中作主语,所以空处需用which引导非限定性定语从句。故填which。【40题详解】考查形容词。句意同上。此处需用形容词作定语修饰名词clothing,base的形容词为basic“基本的”。故填basic。【41题详解】考查副词。句意:许多村民绝望地离开了家乡。空处需用副词作状语修饰动词left,此处需用副词hopelessly表达“绝望,无望”之意。故填hopelessly。【42题详解】考查介词。句意:但2019年,政府拨出58万元扶贫资金,成立麻料村银器作坊,帮助麻料村村民用自己的手艺脱贫。空处需用介词,根据句意可知,此处需用介词with表“凭借”。故填with。【43题详解】,考查动词时态。句意:从那以后,大多数年轻的手工艺人都回到了自己的家乡,找到了光明的未来。根据Sincethatyear判断,此处该用现在完成时:have/hasdone,主语是复数craftsmen,所以空处需用助动词have。故填havereturned。【44题详解】考查形容词。句意:在政府工作坊的帮助下,他们了解了最新的时尚趋势,以及如何满足客户的各种需求。此处意为“最新的潮流趋势”,所以空处需用形容词latest。故填latest。【45题详解】考查名词复数。句意同上。request动词和名词形式皆为request“要求”request为名词时,为可数名词,且由various修饰。故填requests。第四部分写作(共两节,满分40分)第一节(满分15分)46.假定你是李华,你校英语报征稿,要求同学们介绍上周末的秋游活动。请你写一篇文章投稿,要点包括:1.时间、地点;2.活动内容;3.你的感受。注意:1.词数80左右;2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________【答案】Lastweekend,ourclassmates,accompaniedbyourteachers,wenttovisittheWestHillParkasanAutumnHike.Thatwasafineday,whichmadeusrelaxed.Onarrivalat10a.m.,wecouldn’thelpappreciatingthebeautifulscenery.Wenoticedsomeleavesturnyellowandsomestillremaingreen.Thewholeparklookedjustlikeagreatpainting.Somestudentsbegantotakephotosinordertokeepthemomentforever.Wewalked,sangsomesongsandlaughedhappily.Atlast,welefttheWestHillParkandwentbackhome.HowIwishthatourschoolwouldorganizemoreactivitieslikethisinfuture.,【解析】【分析】本篇书面表达属于记叙文。要求考生向校英语报投稿,介绍上周末的秋游活动。【详解】第一步:审题体裁:记叙文时态:根据提示,时态主要为一般过去时。结构:总分法总分法指把主题句作为总说,把支持句作为分说,并以这种方式安排所写内容。要求:1.时间、地点;2.活动内容;3.你的感受。第二步:列提纲(重点词组)inorderto;gotovisit;relaxed;can’thelpdoing;remain;takephotos;inorderto;forever;infuture第三步:连词成句1.Lastweekend,ourclassmates,accompaniedbyourteachers,wenttovisittheWestHillParkasanAutumnHike.2.Thatwasafineday,whichmadeusrelaxed.3.Onarrivalat10a.m.,wecouldn’thelpappreciatingthebeautifulscenery.4.Wenoticedsomeleavesturnyellowandsomestillremaingreen.5.Somestudentsbegantotakephotosinordertokeepthemomentforever.6.HowIwishthatourschoolwouldorganizemoreactivitieslikethisinfuture.根据提示及关键词(组)进行遣词造句,注意主谓一致和时态问题。第四步:连句成篇(衔接词)表文章结构顺序:Atlast连句成文,注意使用恰当的连词进行句子之间的衔接与过渡,书写一定要规范清晰,【点睛】[高分句型1]Lastweekend,ourclassmates,accompaniedbyourteachers,wenttovisittheWestHillParkasanAutumnHike.运用了过去分词短语accompaniedby作状语,其逻辑主语是ourclassmates。[高分句型2],Thatwasafineday,whichmadeusrelaxed.运用了which引导的非限制性定语从句。第二节(满分25分)47.阅读下面材料,根据其内容和所给段落开头语续写两段,使之构成一篇完整的短文。OnMondaynight,Cindy'snine-year-olddaughterDaisyannouncedshewasgoingtopracticeonelasttimefortheupcomingthirdgradetalentshow.Thefollowingday,she'dbeperforming"FightSong"byRachelPlatten,whichtheybothknewwouldbeacrowdpleaseramongheryoungclassmates.Shehadpreparedherselffortheshowfornearlytwomonths,duringwhichsheherselfmadethefinaldecisiontosingtotheguitar.Shehadlearnedtoplaytheguitarfortwoyears.Asshebegantoplay,Cindyclosedhereyes,imaginingforamomentwhatthechildren'sfaceswouldlooklikeasshebegantoplayandsing.Mostofherclassmateshadneverheardthisgirlsing,letaloneplaytheguitar.Asshesharedhermusicalgiftinthatspotlightmoment,Cindyknewitwouldbehardforhertocontainhersmile.Cindyguessedthatshewouldbealittlenervousbeforesomanystudentsandteachers.Butshewouldn'tbeinvitedtowitnesswhatwouldhappen.Shewasalittledisappointed."Parentsaren'tallowedtocometothethirdgradetalentshow,Mom,"shesaidmatter-of-factlytwoweeksago,breakingherheartrightinhalf.“What?Youmustbemistaken,"Cindysaid,feelinginappropriatelyemotionalaboutthisnews.Theywereonlystudentsofthethirdgrade.Theyshouldbeaccompaniedbytheirparentsonsuchimportantoccasions.Theymaybenervous.Hermindwasfullofkindthoughtsandlove,butshesaidnothing.Perhapsthatdayshehadsomethingunhappysoshewasunwillingtotalkmuchwithher.Perhapsherschoolwouldgiveoutinvitationstoalltheparentswelcomingthemtoappreciatetheirchildren'sperformances.Shedecidedtoofferherpuzzle,sosheaskedwithcaution,"Wouldparentsbeinvitedtotheshow?""No.Noparents.It'sjustforkids."shesaiddoingnothingtosoftentheblow…thatis,untilshesawthelookonherface.Tappingherhandgently,shesaidwithconfidence,"Don'tworry,Mom.I'llbefine.”注意:1.续写词数应为150左右;2.请按如下格式在答题卡的相应位置作答。,Cindyknewshewouldbefine.___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Cindydesiredtowatchhergrowthespeciallyonsuchoccasions.___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________【答案】Cindyknewshewouldbefine.Shehadlearnedtoplaytheguitarforalongtimeandshewasatalentedsingerinherfamily.Hermusicalgiftstoodoutwhenshewasonlyoneyearold.Andshe'dwatchedherconfidencegrowoverthepastyears.Sheknewshewouldtakethestagewithherwonderfulperformance.Selfishly,shewantedtobetheretoseeit.Standinginahallorclassroomwithshiningeyesasherchildreadastoryshewrote,recitedalineinaplay,orsangaloneorwithagroup,washerdesire.Cindydesiredtowatchhergrowthespeciallyonsuchoccasions.Inherview,whenDaisyscannedthecrowduntilshefoundher,shelookedatherwithalltheloveinherheart.Inthatmoment,shewouldperformbetter.ButCindyhadtoadmitthatherchildwasbuildingupherindependenceusingherownway.Soperhapssheshouldbeforherdecision.Shewasinamixedemotionalstatewhereherfeelingswerefightingagainstoneanotherandshedecidedtorespectherdecision.Cindygentlytappedhershoulder,saying,“Sure,Iknowyouarethebest."【解析】【分析】文章以人物为线索展开。讲述了Cindy9岁的女儿Daisy将在即将到来的三年级才艺表演上表演蕾切尔·普拉滕(RachelPlatten)的《战斗之歌》(FightSong)。她在为此做最后一次练习,Cindy猜想在这么多学生和老师面前她会有点紧张。但她不会被邀请去见证将要发生的事情。她有点失望。Daisy轻轻地拍了拍她的手,自信地说:“别担心,妈妈。我会没事的。”【详解】1.段落续写:①由第一段首句内容”Cindy知道她会没事的。“可知,第一段可描写Cindy知道女儿能应对这场表演的原因。②由第二段首句内容“Cindy,渴望看到她的成长,尤其是在这样的场合。”可知,第二段可描写Cindy对女儿用自己的方式培养自己的独立性的感慨。2.续写线索:Cindy明白女儿会应对表演的原因——Cindy想要亲眼目睹——Daisy扫视人群,Cindy用心中的爱看着她——Daisy在用自己的方式培养独立性——Cindy决定尊重女儿词汇激活行为类①突出:standout/protrude/stickout②登上舞台:takethestage/appearonthestage③想要亲眼目睹:wanttobetheretosee/wouldliketowitness④扫视:scan/glanceat⑤看着:lookat/watch⑥培养独立性:buildupone'sindependence/developone'sindependence情绪类①爱:love/affection②决心尊重:decidetorespect/bedeterminedtoesteem【点睛】[高分句型1]ButCindyhadtoadmitthatherchildwasbuildingupherindependenceusingherownways.(that引导宾语从句)[高分句型2]Shewasinamixedemotionalstatewhereherfeelingswerefightingagainstoneanotherandshedecidedtorespectherdecision.(where引导定语从句)
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